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工程科学与技术:2023,55(3):1-13
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高坝枢纽泄洪消能建筑物智能巡检与安全评价理论方法和技术研究展望
(1.西南石油大学,四川 成都 610500;2.清华四川能源互联网研究院,四川 成都 610213;3.西南科技大学,四川 绵阳 621010;4.国能大渡河流域水电开发有限公司,四川 成都 610041)
Theoretical and Technical Research Prospects for Intelligent Inspection and Safety Evaluation of Flood Discharge and Energy Dissipation Buildings in High Dam Hubs
(1.Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu 610500, China;2.Sichuan Energy Internet Research Inst., Tsinghua Univ., Chengdu 610213, China;3.Southwest Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Mianyang 621010, China;4.China Energy Dadu River Hydropower Development Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610041, China)
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投稿时间:2022-12-01    修订日期:2023-04-04
中文摘要: 高坝枢纽是支撑水能高效开发和水资源综合利用的重要战略基础设施,持续并稳定地为经济社会发展提供能源供给、防洪保障,产生了巨大的社会效益和经济效益。西南地区高坝枢纽众多,拥有白鹤滩、溪洛渡、锦屏一级、大岗山等一批大型、特大型高坝枢纽,大机组发电、大流量泄洪、高速水流消能成为常态。泄洪消能建筑物破坏成为高坝枢纽工程中常见的威胁大坝安全的关键问题,定期对运行期的水电枢纽开展泄洪消能结构过流面损伤巡检已成为掌握其工作性态、评价结构安全状况的重要手段。随着装备技术、信息技术的创新与发展,依托水下机器人开展高坝枢纽水工建筑物损伤智能检测成为趋势。然而,受制于西南河流含沙水体、水下附着淤积等复杂苛刻检测条件,目前对高速水流与过流面损伤的耦合机制认识尚不清,损伤检测、评价的理论方法和技术手段还较为缺乏,巡检范围大、巡检效率低、环境适应性差之间的矛盾也需要破解,损伤感知方法与损伤识别效率仍需改进,高效精准巡检和科学全面评价依然存在诸多困难。针对高坝枢纽泄洪消能建筑物运行期面临的结构安全重大需求,需要重点解决3方面关键科学问题:1)高速水流与过流面耦合作用下的损伤形成机理与演化规律;2)适用于复杂环境的自适应巡检理论与方法;3)机理分析与数据驱动融合的结构安全风险分析和评价理论。提出高坝枢纽泄洪消能建筑物智能巡检与安全评价理论方法需要关注的4个重要研究方面如下:1)高速水流作用下过流面耦合损伤演变机理;2)复杂环境多信息认知机理与自适应巡检方法;3)泄洪消能结构损伤特征智能辨识与量化方法;4)多元信息融合的结构安全分析与评价体系。通过对智能巡检与安全评价理论方法的深入研究,揭示西南高山峡谷地区泄洪消能建筑物过流面损伤形成机理与演化规律,研发复杂环境强适应性泄洪孔口及水垫塘结构自主智能巡检方法,突破多维感知信息的损伤智能分类与量化关键技术,构建“巡检—监测—模拟”多元数据融合的结构安全分析与评价模型,并以大渡河大岗山水电站为典型案例,对智能巡检方法和评价模型进行应用验证,支撑大渡河流域大岗山水电站关键泄洪消能建筑物的安全运维与智能管控,以期为高坝运行安全和损伤防控提供切实的理论和技术方法。研究成果对保障梯级水电站群发电安全,提高水电运维的精细化管理水平具有重大科学价值和指导意义。
Abstract:The high dam is an important strategic infrastructure that supports the efficient development of hydropower and the comprehensive utilization of water resources. It continuously and stably provides energy supply and flood control guarantees for economic and social development, generating huge social and economic benefits. There are numerous high dam hubs in the southwest region, including several large and super-large high dam hubs such as the Baihetan, Xiluodu, Jinping First-stage, and Dagangshan. Large unit power generation, large flow flood discharge, and high-speed water flow energy dissipation have become the norm, and the destruction of flood discharge and energy dissipation buildings has become a common key threat to dam safety in high dam hub projects. Regular inspection of the overflow surface damage of flood discharge and energy dissipation structures during the operation period of hydropower hubs has become an important means to grasp their working performance and evaluate the safety status of the structure. With the innovation and development of equipment technology and information technology, relying on underwater robots to carry out intelligent damage detection of hydraulic structures in high dam hubs has become a trend. However, due to the complex and harsh detection conditions such as sandy water bodies and underwater sediment deposition in southwestern rivers, the coupling mechanism between high-speed water flow and flow surface damage is still unclear, and there is a lack of theoretical and technical methods for damage detection and evaluation. The contradiction between the large inspection scope, low inspection efficiency, and poor environmental adaptability also needs to be solved, and the efficiency of damage perception and identification still needs to be improved. There are still many difficulties in efficient and precise inspection and scientific comprehensive evaluation. In response to the significant demand for structural safety during the operation of flood discharge and energy dissipation buildings in the high dam hub, it is necessary to focus on solving three key scientific problems: 1) Damage formation mechanism and evolution law under the coupling effect of high-speed water flow and flow surface; 2) Adaptive inspection theory and methods suitable for complex environments; 3) Mechanism analysis and data-driven fusion of structural safety risk analysis and evaluation theory. The four important research aspects that need to be paid attention to in proposing the intelligent inspection and safety evaluation theory and method for flood discharge and energy dissipation buildings in high dam hubs are as follows: 1) Evolution mechanism of coupled damage on the flow surface under the action of high-speed water flow; 2) Multi-information cognitive mechanism and adaptive inspection methods in complex environments; 3) Intelligent identification and quantification methods for damage characteristics of flood discharge and energy dissipation structures; 4) Structural security analysis and evaluation system for multiple information fusion. Through in-depth research on the theory and methods of intelligent inspection and safety evaluation, this study reveals the formation mechanism and evolution law of damage to the overflow surface of flood discharge and energy dissipation buildings in the southwest mountainous and canyon areas. It breaks through the autonomous intelligent inspection method of flood discharge outlets and water cushion pond structures with strong adaptability in complex environments, develops key technologies for intelligent classification and quantification of damage based on multi-dimensional perception information, and constructs a structural safety analysis and evaluation model that integrates multiple data of "inspection monitoring simulation". Taking the Dagangshan Hydropower Station on the Dadu River as a typical case, the application verification of intelligent inspection methods and evaluation models was carried out to support the safe operation, maintenance, and intelligent control of key flood discharge and energy dissipation buildings in the Dagangshan Hydropower Station on the Dadu River Basin. The aim is to provide theoretical and technical methods for the operation safety, damage prevention, and control of high dams. The research results have significant scientific value and guiding significance in ensuring the safety of power generation in cascade hydropower stations and improving the refined management level of hydropower operation and maintenance.
文章编号:202201320     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金区域创新发展联合基金(U21A20157)
作者简介:第一作者:陈永灿(1963—),男,教授,博士. 研究方向:水利工程智能巡检. E-mail:chenyc@tsinghua.edu.cn;通信作者:王皓冉, E-mail:thuwhr@163.com
引用文本:
陈永灿,王皓冉,李永龙,刘知贵,涂扬举,李理,陈刚,马芳平,谢辉.高坝枢纽泄洪消能建筑物智能巡检与安全评价理论方法和技术研究展望[J].工程科学与技术,2023,55(3):1-13.
CHEN Yongcan,WANG Haoran,LI Yonglong,LIU Zhigui,TU Yangju,LI Li,CHEN Gang,MA Fangping,XIE Hui.Theoretical and Technical Research Prospects for Intelligent Inspection and Safety Evaluation of Flood Discharge and Energy Dissipation Buildings in High Dam Hubs[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2023,55(3):1-13.