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工程科学与技术:2022,54(3):1-13
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冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链发展过程机理与模拟技术研究构想(特约稿)
(1.四川大学 水利水电学院,四川 成都 610065;2.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065;3.西藏农牧学院,西藏自治区 林芝 860000;4.四川大学 建筑与环境学院,四川 成都 610065)
Research Framework of the Program: Dynamic Evolution Mechanism and Simulation of Moraine Landslide—Debris Flow—Dammed Lake Disaster Chain (Invited Contribution)
(1.College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;2.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;3.Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Univ., Linzhi 860000, China;4.College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
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投稿时间:2021-07-02    修订日期:2022-01-04
中文摘要: 中国青藏高原地区分布有丰富的冰碛土物源,其历史成因复杂、物质结构多变、力学性能差异大,在降雨和冰雪消融作用下常有滑坡失稳发生,冰碛土滑坡碎屑物进入沟道与水流掺混极易发生滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链,是高原地区防灾减灾的重点和难点。近年来,川藏铁路工程及重大水电开发等面临冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链的巨大威胁,因此,提升防灾减灾救灾能力是国家重大需求。冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖是一个级联放大的链式灾害过程,涉及滑坡起动、运动性态转变、沿程侵蚀放大、多期堵江叠加、溃坝水沙耦合等复杂动力演化机制,尤其在复杂气象条件下,冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖的动力形成、溃决冲刷及洪水演进等方面存在机理不清、模型不准、模拟技术缺乏等问题,亟需开展冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链过程的复杂动力学机制、控制性理论模型及全过程数值模拟等研究工作。结合国内外冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖形成与溃决的相关研究现状,提出冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害需要关注的几个重要研究方面:1)复杂气象条件下冰碛土力学性能演化;2)冰碛土滑坡—泥石流动力灾变过程与运移模型;3)冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖形成机理与仿真模拟;4)冰碛土堰塞坝冲刷溃决机理与流道拓展过程;5)下游河道水沙互馈作用机制与洪水演进模拟。同时,开展了大量前期探索和研究工作,初步揭示了冰碛土滑坡—泥石流运移与多期堵江机制,构建了考虑水流侵蚀与溃口边坡间歇性崩塌的堰塞坝溃决演化模型,并探讨了冰碛土—滑坡—泥石流—堰塞坝灾害链演化过程模拟方法。研究结果为进一步弄清冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链过程的复杂动力学机制,构建灾害链过程的控制性理论模型,开发全过程数值模拟系统奠定了基础,以期为冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链的成灾机理分析提供理论依据,并为非工程避险与应急处置决策提供技术支撑。
Abstract:There are abundant moraine soil sources distributed in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau of China, with complex historical causes, changeable material structure, and large differences in mechanical properties. Moraine landslide often occurs under the action of rainfall and ice and snow melting. The debris of landslide enters the gully and mixes with water flow, which is very easy to produce the moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain, which is the key and difficult point of disaster prevention and reduction in the plateau. In recent years, the Sichuan—Tibet railway project and major hydropower development in Tibet have faced a great threat from the moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain. It is a major national demand to improve the capacity of disaster prevention, reduction and relief. Moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake—dam-breaking flood is a chain disaster process of cascade amplification, which involves complex dynamic evolution mechanisms such as landslide initiation, movement behavior transformation, erosion amplification along the process, multi-stage river blocking superposition, and dam break water–sediment coupling. Especially under complex meteorological conditions, there are some problems such as unclear mechanism, inaccurate model, and lack of simulation technology. It is urgent to carry out the research on the complex dynamic mechanism, control theoretical model, and whole process numerical simulation of moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain process. Combined with the research status at home and abroad, five research contents are further proposed: 1) Evolution of mechanical properties of moraine soil under complex meteorological conditions. 2) Dynamic disaster process and migration model of moraine landslide—debris flow. 3) Formation mechanism and simulation of moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake. 4) Mechanism of erosion and outburst of moraine dam and the process of flow channel expansion. 5) Mechanism of water-sediment interaction in the downstream channel and the simulation of flood evolution. Many preliminary explorations and research work have been carried out to preliminarily reveal the migration of moraine landslide debris flow and multi-stage river blocking mechanism, a dam break evolution model that can consider water erosion and intermittent collapse of the broken slope has been built, and the simulation method of moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain evolution process has been discussed. The results lay a foundation for further understanding of the complex dynamic mechanism of the moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain process, constructing the control theoretical model and developing the whole process numerical simulation system. And the results are expected to provide a theoretical basis for the mechanism of moraine landslide—debris flow—dammed lake disaster chain and technical support for non-engineering risk reduction and emergency disposal decision-making.
文章编号:202100640     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金区域创新发展联合基金(U20A20111)
作者简介:第一作者:杨兴国(1968—),男,教授,博士. 研究方向:水工结构及地质灾害防治. E-mail:89022251@163.com
引用文本:
杨兴国,曹志翔,邢会歌,金建立,李海波,范刚,叶飞,闫旭峰.冰碛土滑坡—泥石流—堰塞湖灾害链发展过程机理与模拟技术研究构想(特约稿)[J].工程科学与技术,2022,54(3):1-13.
YANG Xingguo,CAO Zhixiang,XING Huige,JIN Jianli,LI Haibo,FAN Gang,YE Fei,YAN Xufeng.Research Framework of the Program: Dynamic Evolution Mechanism and Simulation of Moraine Landslide—Debris Flow—Dammed Lake Disaster Chain (Invited Contribution)[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2022,54(3):1-13.