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工程科学与技术:2023,55(1):110-128
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水库滑坡灾害致灾机理及防控技术研究与展望
(1.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065;2.四川大学 水利水电学院,四川 成都 610065)
Research and Prospect on Disaster-causing Mechanism and Prevention-control Technology of Reservoir Landslides
(1.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;2.College of Water Resources & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
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投稿时间:2022-10-19    修订日期:2022-12-13
中文摘要: 随着中国高坝大库水利水电工程的相继运行,水库滑坡灾害已成为影响工程运行稳定和威胁沿岸人民生命财产安全的重大隐患,提升其综合防控能力是国家重大需求。水库滑坡是一个复杂的地质综合体,其变形破坏过程不仅与滑坡所在区域的地质条件特性相关,更取决于诱发因素如降雨、库水位变动等动态作用的影响,从开始孕育变形到最终失稳破坏一般需经历较长的历时,是一个不断累积发展的过程,不仅涉及降雨入渗与库水影响的时空叠加作用,更涉及多因素耦合下的渐进破坏机制,其致灾机理与防控难度极高。本文结合大量现场调查、室内外试验和数值模拟,总结了库区地质、水文等条件对于滑坡易感性及空间分布的影响规律,揭示了强降雨、库水位变动及多因素叠加作用下水库滑坡的累积灾变失稳机理;建立了离散元模型与流体力学模型(DEM-SPH)耦合的滑坡-涌浪模拟技术,能够较好地揭示高速滑坡体入河与水流的强碰撞及涌浪的非线性传播过程,可为滑坡致灾影响范围及应急避险方案制定提供科学依据;构建了无人机-3维激光扫描空地数据融合的大范围水库滑坡3维变形演化监测技术,并归纳总结了水库滑坡的综合治理技术。此外,针对多因素驱动下水库滑坡复杂致灾机理及防控技术方面的研究不足和局限性,展望了水库滑坡在灾变累积失稳与稳定评价、多源融合监测与智能预警、滑坡-涌浪流固耦合模拟与致灾影响评估、生态措施-支护结构联合治理技术方面的未来发展方向,期望为水库滑坡灾害防控减灾研究提供借鉴。
Abstract:With the continuous development of hydropower clean energy in China, many large hydropower projects have been built and put into operation. However, high dams and large reservoirs have led to frequent geological disasters in the reservoir area. Among them, reservoir landslide hazards are a major threat to the stability of project operation and the safety of life and property in the reservoir area, and it has become a major national demand to improve its comprehensive prevention and control capability. A reservoir landslide is a complex geological integration, which is influenced by intrinsic factors such as regional geological and topographical conditions and external hydrodynamic factors such as rainfall and reservoir water level changes. From the beginning of deformation to final instability, reservoir landslides generally take a long period of time and are an accumulating development process, involving not only the spatial and temporal superposition of rainfall infiltration and reservoir water level fluctuation but also the progressive cumulative effect of multi-factor coupling. Therefore, the mechanism of landslides in reservoir areas is very complex, and the difficulty of prevention and control is extremely high. Based on many field investigations, indoor and outdoor tests, and numerical simulations, the influence of geological and hydrological conditions on landslide susceptibility and spatial distribution was summarized, and the cumulative catastrophic instability mechanism of landslides in the reservoir area was revealed. The landslide surge simulation technology coupled with the discrete element model and the fluid mechanics model (DEM-SPH) was established, which could better reveal the strong collision between the high-speed landslide mass and the water flow and the nonlinear propagation process of the surge, and could provide a scientific basis for the landslide disaster affected area and the formulation of emergency risk avoidance plan. The monitoring technology of the 3D deformation evolution of reservoir landslides based on UAV and terrestrial laser scanning data fusion was constructed, and the comprehensive treatment technology of reservoir landslides was summarized. In addition, in view of the lack and limitation of research on the complex disaster-causing mechanism and prevention and control technology of landslides in the reservoir area driven by multiple factors, the future development direction of landslides in the reservoir area in terms of cumulative instability and stability evaluation of disasters, multi-source fusion monitoring and intelligent early warning, landslide surge fluid-solid coupling simulation and disaster impact assessment, and ecological measures support structure joint governance technology was expected to provide a reference for the research on landslide disaster prevention, control, and reduction in the reservoir area.
文章编号:202201131     中图分类号:TV62    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金长江水科学研究联合基金项目(U2240221);四川省青年科技创新研究团队项目(2020JDTD0006)
作者简介:第一作者:周家文(1982-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:岩土灾害机理与防控.E-mail:jwzhou@scu.edu.cn
引用文本:
周家文,陈明亮,瞿靖昆,胡宇翔,夏茂圃,蒋楠,李海波,范刚.水库滑坡灾害致灾机理及防控技术研究与展望[J].工程科学与技术,2023,55(1):110-128.
ZHOU Jiawen,CHEN Mingliang,QU Jingkun,HU Yuxiang,XIA Maopu,JIANG Nan,LI Haibo,FAN Gang.Research and Prospect on Disaster-causing Mechanism and Prevention-control Technology of Reservoir Landslides[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2023,55(1):110-128.