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工程科学与技术:2022,54(1):97-105
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重力储能发电现状、技术构想及关键问题
(1.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室 水利水电学院,四川 成都 610065;2.国家能源集团科学技术研究院有限公司成都分公司,四川 成都 610041;3.东方电气集团东方电机有限公司,四川 德阳 618000)
Present Situation, Technology Conceptualization and Key Problem for Gravity Energy Storage
(1.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;2.China Energy Sci. and Technol. Research Inst. Co., Ltd., Chengdu Branch, Chengdu 610041, China;3.DEC Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd., Deyang 618000, China)
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投稿时间:2021-11-15    修订日期:2022-01-04
中文摘要: 目前,以风能和太阳能为主的波动性电源快速增长,导致电力不平衡矛盾突出,亟需发展储能技术。抽水蓄能是目前为止规模最大、技术最成熟的储能方式,已成为电网储能的主力军。国外相关资料报道,把储能介质“水体”换成其他固体重物的重力储能发电可实现与抽水蓄能电站类似的功效,但国内还缺少系统研讨。本文分析了重力储能发电的现状,类比抽水蓄能技术提出构想方案,引入“重力轮机”“上仓”与“下仓”等概念;阐明了重力储能、发电基本过程及其原理,从理论上推导了重力发电的出力公式;通过科学构想、对比分析初估认为,重力储能发电净高差约100 m,单机容量最大达到10 MW级别,可采用“分布式”规划站点实现灵活的规模化储能;通过开展探讨性剖析,提出4个技术构想及关键问题:1)重物势能转化旋转机械能的重力轮机。研发与水轮机作用类似的重力轮机,最大运行规模按每秒投入约十多吨重物,目标效率可设定为80%。重力轮机是重力储能发电的核心设备,需要在机械工程应用领域开展系统深入的研究。2)适宜的上下仓布置形式。结合实际地理条件,灵活布置上仓与下仓,利用上下仓之间的空间存放重物可减少占地。上下仓布置形式影响重力轮机及输送系统的研发方向,可以统筹研讨、论证。3)重物高效输送系统,包括下仓重物吊运至上仓和仓内输送。降低重物输送能耗,提高系统综合效率,直接关系到重力储能发电的商业价值,故需要开展广泛调研和技术攻关,探寻安全、高效、切实可行的输送方案。4)合理选用重物。采用混凝土为重物的主材较为合适,尽量利用建筑垃圾或就地取材等,以降低对环境的不利影响;宜采用规格相同的标准重物,并能长时间循环使用。重力储能发电具备环境友好、布置灵活、安全度高、寿命长、无自放电等显著优势,研发价值突出,应用前景广阔,目前还处于探索阶段,有待更深入的探究,以推动先期预研、方案规划及技术研发,为新能源长远发展提供后备支撑。
Abstract:The rapid growth of fluctuating power sources, mainly wind and solar energy, has led to severe power imbalances and urgent need for developing the energy storage technology. Pumped storage is the largest and most mature energy storage mode by now and has become the energy storage mainstay in the power grid. Gravity energy storage can also realize similar function, by replacing the storage material “water” in pumped storage with other solid heavy objects. There are relevant reports about gravity energy storage abroad, while still lacking in China so far. In this paper, the present situation of gravity energy storage was analyzed, and a conceptual scheme, which includes the gravity turbine and the up and down storehouses, was proposed by analogy with pumped storage. Meanwhile, the working processes, principles of energy storage and power generation of gravity energy storage were clarified, and the power output formula was derived theoretically. According to scientific conception and comparative analysis, it is preliminarily estimated that the net height of gravity energy storage is about 100 m and the corresponding maximum single unit capacity can reach 10 MW. In addition, distributed planning can be adopted to realize flexible large-scale energy storage. Based on the exploratory analysis, four technology conceptualizations and key problems of gravity energy storage are proposed as follows: 1) The gravity turbine for converting the potential energy of heavy objects into rotating mechanical energy. The gravity turbine is developed which works similarly to the hydraulic turbine, the maximum transport capacity is more than ten tons per second and the target efficiency is 80%. Since the gravity turbine is the critical core component of gravity energy storage, more needs to be studied in the mechanical engineering applications. 2) The suitable layout of up and down storehouses. Combined with the actual geographical conditions, flexibly arrange the up and down storehouses. Using the space between up and down storehouses to store heavy objects can reduce the land occupation. The up and down storehouses layout, gravity turbine and conveying system should be discussed and demonstrated as a whole system since the former can affect the development and research of the others. 3) High efficiency conveying system for heavy objects, including lifting heavy objects from the down storehouse to the up storehouse and transporting them in the same storehouse. Because the commercial value of gravity energy storage is directly related to the conveyance energy consumption and system efficiency, extensive research is needed to find a safe, efficient, and feasible conveying system. 4) Reasonable selection of heavy objects. Concrete as the main material of heavy objects is more appropriate. The construction waste and local material are used as much as possible to reduce the impact on the environment. In addition, heavy objects should be standardization with the same specification and durability for long recycling. All in all, gravity energy storage has the significant advantages of environmental friendliness, flexible layout, high safety, long life, no self-discharge, etc., with outstanding research and development value and broad application prospects. However, gravity energy storage technology is still in the exploration stage. Further investigations of gravity energy storage are needed to promote the pre-study, program planning and technology development, which would provide backup support for the long-term development of new energy.
文章编号:202101140     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51879179)
作者简介:第一作者:陈云良(1976-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:能源与动力工程;水利水电工程.E-mail:liangyunchen@163.com
引用文本:
陈云良,刘旻,凡家异,王晓东,邹小林.重力储能发电现状、技术构想及关键问题[J].工程科学与技术,2022,54(1):97-105.
CHEN Yunliang,LIU Min,FAN Jiayi,WANG Xiaodong,ZOU Xiaolin.Present Situation, Technology Conceptualization and Key Problem for Gravity Energy Storage[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2022,54(1):97-105.