###
工程科学与技术:2023,55(1):287-295
←前一篇   |   后一篇→
本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
基于暴雨壤中流机制的山区水文模型研究与应用
(1.武汉大学 水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室,湖北 武汉 430072;2.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065)
Research and Application of Mountain Hydrological Model Based on the Mechanism of Subsurface Storm Flow
(1.State Key Lab. of Water Resources and Hydropower Eng. Sci., Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, China;2.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
摘要
图/表
参考文献
相似文献
附件
本文已被:浏览 1746次   下载 363
投稿时间:2021-10-22    修订日期:2022-11-22
中文摘要: 近年来,学者们纷纷认识到暴雨壤中流机制是湿润山区小流域的重要产流机制之一,进一步探明暴雨壤中流机制对于山洪模拟至关重要。本文将暴雨壤中流的泄流过程划分为基岩贮水、快速泄流、地表泄流3个阶段:在基岩贮水阶段,基岩或暂态不透水层上的凹洼区尚未填满时,降水需先填洼,不产流,此阶段常出现“雨大水小”;在快速泄流阶段,基岩或暂态不透水层上的凹洼区已填满,暂态饱和区扩大,将土壤-基岩区的事件前水排出,此阶段常出现“雨小水大”;在地表泄流阶段,暂态饱和区进一步扩展到地面,此时形成地表径流。本文据此提出贮水泄流公式对这3个阶段进行定量描述,并构建了基于暴雨壤中流机制的山区水文模型(subsurface storm flow-based mountain hydrological model, SSFM)。以湖北省丹江口市官山河流域为典型,选取12场实测洪水过程,用SSFM模型进行模拟,并将其结果与TOPMODEL模型、分布式时变增益模型、新安江模型的模拟结果进行对比分析。从模型对比可以看出:1)时变增益模型(TVGM)、新安江模型、TOPMODEL模型及SSFM模型模拟结果的平均洪峰误差分别为-29.61%、-51.74%、-29.08%、-24.82%,径流深误差分别为-30.83%、-26.87%、-18.43%、-9.67%。2)“基岩贮水”和“快速泄流”可以解释官山河流域山洪过程中出现的“雨大水小、雨小水大”的异变特征。这些结果也表明,由于引入了3阶段暴雨壤中流机制,SSFM模型的模拟效果比其他模型有较为明显的改进,更加适合在湿润山区小流域进行水文模拟,在山洪预警预报方面具有深入发展和应用的价值。
Abstract:In recent years, scholars all over the world have realized that subsurface storm flow mechanism is one of the important runoff generation mechanisms in small watersheds in humid mountainous area. It is crucial to further explore the subsurface storm flow mechanism for flash flood simulation. This paper divides the discharge process of subsurface storm flow into three stages: water storage stage, rapid discharge stage and surface discharge stage. In the water storage stage, the precipitation needs to supplement the depression on the bedrock or the relative impermeable layer first. The phenomenon of “large rainfall but small runoff” often occurs in this stage. In the rapid discharge stage, the depression on the bedrock or the relative impermeable layer has filled, the transient saturation area gradually expands, and the pre-event water discharges rapidly. The phenomenon of “small rainfall but large runoff” often occurs in this stage. In the surface discharge stage, the transient saturation area further extends to the ground surface and discharges in the form of surface runoff. Based on this, the water storage and discharge formula is proposed to quantitatively describe the three stages, and the subsurface storm flow-based mountain hydrological model (SSFM) is constructed. Taking Guanshan River basin in Danjiangkou City, Hubei Province as the study area, 12 measured flood processes are selected and simulated by SSFM. Comparing the simulation results with those of TOPMODEL, the distributed time-varying gain model and Xin’anjiang model, it can be seen that: 1) the average peak flow errors of the time-varying gain model (TVGM), Xin’anjiang model, TOPMODEL and SSFM are -29.61%, -51.74%, -29.08%, -24.82%, respectively, and the average runoff depth errors are -30.83%, -26.87%, -18.43%, -9.67%, respectively. 2) The “water storage stage” and “rapid discharge stage” can explain the variation characteristics of “large rainfall but small runoff” and “small rainfall but large runoff” in flash flood process of Guanshan River basin. The results show that due to the introduction of three-stage subsurface storm flow mechanism, the simulation effect of SSFM is obviously improved compared to other models. SSFM is more suitable for flash flood simulation in small watersheds in humid mountain area, and it has potential application to flash flood forecasting and early warning.
文章编号:202101067     中图分类号:TV877;X43    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41790431);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1502503)
作者简介:第一作者:张艳军(1982-),男,副教授,博士.研究方向:水文及水环境模型.E-mail:zhangyj1015@whu.edu.cn
引用文本:
张艳军,宋圆馨,董文逊,邱安妮,罗兰,黄尔.基于暴雨壤中流机制的山区水文模型研究与应用[J].工程科学与技术,2023,55(1):287-295.
ZHANG Yanjun,SONG Yuanxin,DONG Wenxun,QIU Anni,LUO Lan,HUANG Er.Research and Application of Mountain Hydrological Model Based on the Mechanism of Subsurface Storm Flow[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2023,55(1):287-295.