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工程科学与技术:2022,54(6):75-84
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金沙江上游超大古堰塞湖及其相关问题
(1.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室 地质工程与地质灾害研究所,四川 成都 610065;2.北京工业大学 建筑工程学院,北京 100124;3.中国地质大学( 北京) 工程技术学院,北京 100083)
A Gigantic Paleo-dammed Lake in the Upper Reaches of Jinsha River and Its Relevant Issues
(1.Inst. of Geo-Eng. and Geohazards, State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;2.College of Architecture and Civil Eng., Beijing Univ. of Technol., Beijing 100124, China;3.School of Eng. and Technol., China Univ. of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China)
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投稿时间:2021-09-30    修订日期:2022-06-13
中文摘要: 大型历史堵江滑坡研究不仅是认识区域构造背景和河流演变规律的重要工作,而且对山区河流工程安全亦有十分重要的意义。金沙江上游巴曲河口至麦曲河口段发育于金沙江缝合带,高山峡谷地貌,构造活动强烈,是历史堵江滑坡的集中发育区,其中,王大龙古滑坡具有坝高最高、堰塞湖规模最大且堰塞历史悠久等特点。以王大龙古滑坡为研究对象,基于详细的野外调查与资料分析,对其成因与演变过程进行了分析。主要结论如下:1)王大龙滑坡位于金沙江缝合带,源区基岩主要为三叠系中心绒群下段板岩 (T1–2zh1),其次为二叠系嘎金雪山群下段石英砂岩(Pgj1),滑坡总体上为王大龙断裂与中心绒群板理面切割形成的楔形体,前缘受雄松—苏洼龙活动断裂切割,方量约4.0×108 m3;2)诱发滑坡的内动力为地震,外动力为河流凹岸侵蚀,滑坡时间应为晚更新世大理冰期;3)堰塞坝长约1 700 m,宽约3 000 m,高度超过450 m,形态右高左低,右岸高程约2 770 m,左岸垭口高程约2 735 m;4)堰塞湖规模约26.6×109 m3,干流库尾到达叶巴滩水电站坝址的降曲河口,长度约176 km;5)堰塞坝发生过3次溃决,溃口底面高程分别为2 460、2 400和2 358 m(现河面高程);6)第1次溃决极有可能由雄松—苏洼龙断裂错动导致,时间早于1 900 a BP,估算溃口流量为21.0×104~39.8×104 m3/s,远远大于长江历史洪水记录。
Abstract:Investigations of historical landslide dams are of great significance for both in-depth understanding of regional tectonics and river evolution, and the safety of mountain river engineering. A section of the upper Jinsha River runs among the Jinsha River suture belt from the estuary of Baqu stream to the estuary of Maiqu stream. Due to the alpine and gorge geomorphy and active tectonics in the section, historical landslide dams are highly developed, among which Wangdalong paleo-landslide is characterized by the highest dam height, the largest volume of dammed lake and the longer silt history. Based on detailed field survey and data analysis of Wangdalong paleo-landslide in the upper reaches of Jinsha River, its formation and evolution are analyzed and the major conclusions are summarized as follows: 1) Wangdalong landslide is located in the suture area of Jinsha River and its main rocks comprise slate in the lower Zhongxinrong Formation (T1–2zh1) and quartz sandstone in the lower Gajin formation (Pgj1). Its source zone is a rock wedge confined by two discontinuities, i.e., the slate foliation of T1–2zh1 and fracture surface of the Wang-dalong Fault, which form an intersection line plunging towards the west. Xiongsong—Suwalong active fault cuts through the toe of the wedge and the wedge volume is estimated to be about 4.0×108 m3. 2) The landslide was probably triggered endogenically by an earthquake and exenogenically by lateral erosion due to its location on the concave-bank of the river, and the slide should occur in the Dali glaciations of the Late Pleistocene. 3) The dimensions of the landslide dam are approximately 1 700 m in length, 3 000 m in width and 450 m in height. The left side of the dam is lower than the right side, the elevation of the left side is about 2 735 m, while the right side can reach as high as about 2 770 m. 4) The dammed lake has a volume of about 26.6×109 m3, which extends upstream for about 176 km and to the estuary of Jiangqu creek, i.e. the damsite of Yebatan hydropower station. 5) The dam experienced three breaching events and the corresponding elevation of sluice bed are approximately 2 460 m, 2 400 m and 2 358 m (the present river level), respectively. 6) The first dam-break should most likely be induced by the dislocation of Xiongsong—Suwalong fault, earlier than 1900 a BP, and its empirically estimated flood is 21.0×104 to 39.8×104 m3/s, much larger than any historical records available in the reaches of Yangtze River.
文章编号:202100989     中图分类号:P642    文献标志码:
基金项目:第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究专题(2019QZKK0905);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1505000)
作者简介:第一作者:邓建辉(1965-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:岩石工程与地质灾害.E-mail:jhdeng@scu.edu.cn
引用文本:
邓建辉,李化,戴福初,陈剑,赵思远,刘敬民,叶成林,高云建.金沙江上游超大古堰塞湖及其相关问题[J].工程科学与技术,2022,54(6):75-84.
DENG Jianhui,LI Hua,DAI Fuchu,CHEN Jian,ZHAO Siyuan,LIU Jingmin,YE Chenglin,GAO Yunjian.A Gigantic Paleo-dammed Lake in the Upper Reaches of Jinsha River and Its Relevant Issues[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2022,54(6):75-84.