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工程科学与技术:2022,54(1):106-116
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碳中和背景下先进制氢原理与技术研究进展
(1.深圳大学 深地科学与绿色能源研究院 广东省深地科学与地热能开发利用重点实验室,广东 深圳 518060;2.深圳大学 土木与交通工程学院深圳市深部工程与绿色能源重点实验室,广东 深圳 518060;3.四川大学 新能源与低碳技术研究院,四川 成都 610065)
Principles and Progress of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies in the Context of Carbon Neutrality
(1.Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Deep Earth Sciences and Geothermal Energy Exploitation and Utilization, Inst. of Deep Earth Sciences and Green Energy, Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China;2.Shenzhen Key Lab. of Deep Underground Eng. Sciences and Green Energy, College of Civil and Transportation Eng., Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China;3.Inst. of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
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投稿时间:2021-07-14    修订日期:2021-10-17
中文摘要: 在全球大力倡导“碳中和”的背景下,发展高能效、低成本、零排放的先进可再生能源电解制氢技术将成为实现“碳中和”的关键。然而,当前化石能源制氢技术仍处于主流地位,具有成本低的优势,但存在固有的碳排放,而利用可再生能源电解水制氢则被认为是未来氢能的技术路线,近年来,主流的碱性电解制氢技术发展迅速,有望在可再生能源价格持续下降的趋势下,大幅降低其制氢成本。本文将对化石制氢和电解水制氢技术的发展背景、技术现状和前沿发展方向等进行总结、思考及探讨。针对化石燃料制氢,阐述天然气重整制氢与煤气化制氢的发展路径,评价新型化学链制氢技术在降低化石制氢碳排放上的潜力;针对电解水制氢技术,系统评估4种主流电解水路线,即碱性电解水制氢、阴离子交换膜电解制氢、质子交换膜电解制氢以及固体氧化物基电解制氢的技术特点,并对碱性电解水高温高压热力学优化、KOH高温固化以及固态复合电解质开发等电解水技术新发展做出详细的评述。在此基础上,分析未来氢能应用场景的发展方向,认为海水制氢是未来大规模氢能系统的核心,深入分析海水制氢所面临的析氯腐蚀挑战、热力学机理、低氯选择性析氧催化剂开发等关键原理与技术,并提出相关发展建议,以期促进氢能技术发展。
Abstract:In the context of global “carbon neutrality”, the development of advanced renewable hydrogen production technology with high energy efficiency, low cost and zero emission will become the key to achieving “carbon neutrality”. However, hydrogen production from fossil energy is still dominating the market, with low cost, but inherent carbon emissions. Hydrogen production from electrolytic water using renewable energy is considered to be the core of the renewable energy grid in the future with the continuous decline of renewable energy prices. This paper summarized the background, technical status and cutting-edge development of hydrogen production technologies. Regarding fossil fuels reforming, technological evaluation of natural gas reforming and coal gasification is conducted. The potential of chemical loping technology in effectively reducing the carbon emissions of reforming was evaluated. Regarding the water splitting, the technical characteristics and recent progresses of four mainstream water splitting routes, i.e. alkaline electrolysis, anion exchange membrane electrolysis, proton exchange membrane electrolysis, and solid oxide-based electrolysis technologies were compared. On this basis, the prospect of hydrogen production from water splitting (especially from seawater) was discussed for the large-scale hydrogen energy system in the future, by evaluating the existing challenges/opportunities in seawater splitting, including the chlorine evolution, thermodynamic optimization, and catalyst development. Finally, relevant suggestions were put forward in order to promote the research of hydrogen production technologies.
文章编号:202100686     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52006150);广东省珠江人才计划引进创新创业团队项目(2019ZT08G315);深圳市科技计划项目(JCYJ20210324093008021)
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
CHEN Bin Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Deep Earth Sciences and Geothermal Energy Exploitation and Utilization, Inst. of Deep Earth Sciences and Green Energy, Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China
Shenzhen Key Lab. of Deep Underground Eng. Sciences and Green Energy, College of Civil and Transportation Eng., Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China 
chenbin@szu.edu.cn 
XIE Heping Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Deep Earth Sciences and Geothermal Energy Exploitation and Utilization, Inst. of Deep Earth Sciences and Green Energy, Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China
Shenzhen Key Lab. of Deep Underground Eng. Sciences and Green Energy, College of Civil and Transportation Eng., Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China
Inst. of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China 
 
LIU Tao Inst. of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China  
LAN Cheng Inst. of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China  
LIN Kuiwu Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Deep Earth Sciences and Geothermal Energy Exploitation and Utilization, Inst. of Deep Earth Sciences and Green Energy, Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China
Shenzhen Key Lab. of Deep Underground Eng. Sciences and Green Energy, College of Civil and Transportation Eng., Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China 
 
ZHANG Yuan Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Deep Earth Sciences and Geothermal Energy Exploitation and Utilization, Inst. of Deep Earth Sciences and Green Energy, Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China
Shenzhen Key Lab. of Deep Underground Eng. Sciences and Green Energy, College of Civil and Transportation Eng., Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen 518060, China 
 
作者简介:第一作者:陈彬(1991-),男,副研究员,博士.研究方向:新能源、储能技术.Email:chenbin@szu.edu.cn;通信作者:谢和平,Email:xiehp@szu.edu.cn
引用文本:
陈彬,谢和平,刘涛,兰铖,林魁武,章远.碳中和背景下先进制氢原理与技术研究进展[J].工程科学与技术,2022,54(1):106-116.
CHEN Bin,XIE Heping,LIU Tao,LAN Cheng,LIN Kuiwu,ZHANG Yuan.Principles and Progress of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies in the Context of Carbon Neutrality[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2022,54(1):106-116.