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工程科学与技术:2022,54(2):196-204
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焊接机器人焊缝跟踪方法及路径规划研究
(1.长安大学 工程机械学院 机电液一体化研究所, 陕西 西安 710064;2.广州先进技术研究所, 广东 广州 511458;3.西安航天时代精密机电有限公司, 陕西 西安 710100)
Research on Welding Seam Tracking Method and Path Planning of Welding Robot
(1.Inst. of Mechatronics, School of Eng. Machinery, Chang’an Univ., Xi’an 710064, China;2.Guangzhou Inst. of Advanced Technol., Guangzhou 511458, China;3.Xi’an Aerospace Times Precision Electromechanical Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710100, China)
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投稿时间:2021-06-17    修订日期:2021-09-01
中文摘要: 焊缝自主跟踪是机器人焊接智能化的关键,其精度是评价焊接质量的重要指标。焊接对象或条件的改变对精度的影响最为直接,尤其当焊件表面存在缺陷时会产生较大的跟踪误差。为此,开展焊接机器人焊缝跟踪方法及路径规划研究,提出焊缝跟踪的4步法:1)利用激光传感器扫描坡口,获取轮廓数据。2)接着通过组合滤波算法,运用限幅滤波和高斯滤波处理数据以平滑噪声。3)采用导数法初步定位特征点,通过寻找第1阶和第2导数极值点以定位第1类和第2类特征点;以初步定位获得的特征点为分界点,分段拟合坡口轮廓数据,计算各拟合线段的交点进而得到精确定位的特征点。4)通过传感器位姿标定,确定其相对末端坐标系的位置,借助转换矩阵将传感器检测到的焊缝特征点转化到基座标系下,得到机器人的空间定位点;运用3次样条插值法生成焊枪末端轨迹,并驱动机器人按照预定轨迹运行,进而实现焊缝的有效跟踪。通过实验验证直线与曲线焊缝的跟踪效果,结果表明:初步定位时,跟踪误差约为0.628 mm、0.736 mm,经精确定位后,误差降为0.387 mm、0.429 mm,提升幅度分别超过38.4%、41.7%;且焊枪的抖动现象得到减弱,达到自动焊接误差≤0.5 mm的精度要求,表明了文中所提出跟踪方法的有效性,可为焊缝的高精度跟踪和自动焊接研究提供有益参考。
Abstract:Autonomous tracking of weld seams is a key technology to robot welding intelligence, and its accuracy is an important indicator for evaluating welding quality. Changes in welding objects or conditions have the most direct impact on accuracy, especially when there are defects on the surfaces of the weldment, which will cause a large tracking error. This paper proposes a four-step method for welding seam tracking, which uses laser sensor to obtain contour data; the combined filtering algorithm which contains the limit filter and Gaussian filter is used to smooth the noise; the derivative method is used to initially locate the feature points, and by finding extreme points of the first derivative to locate the first type of feature points, and the second type feature points are located by finding the maximum points of the second derivative; the feature points obtained from the preliminary positioning is used as the dividing points, the groove contour data is fitted segmentally, the intersection points of the fitted lines accurately locates the feature points; through sensor calibration, the position of the sensor relative to the end coordinate system is obtained, and the feature points obtained by the sensor are transformed into the base frame with the help of the transformation matrix, then the positioning points of the robot are obtained; use the cubic spline interpolation method to generate the trajectory of the end of the welding torch, and drive the robot to run according to the predetermined trajectory to realize the tracking of the welding seam. Experiments have been conducted to verify the tracking effect of straight and curved welds. The results show that the tracking errors are approximately 0.628 mm and 0.736 mm during the initial positioning. After precise positioning, the errors are reduced to 0.387 mm and 0.429 mm, and the increase rate exceeds 38.4% and 41.7% respectively. In addition, the jitter phenomenon of the welding gun is reduced, and the accuracy requirement of automatic welding error ≤0.5 mm is reached, which shows an effectiveness of the tracking method proposed in the article and can provide reference for the research of high-precision tracking and automatic welding.
文章编号:202100567     中图分类号:TP242.2    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(62073092);陕西省重点研发计划项目(2021ZDLGY09?02);广东省自然科学基金项目(2021A1515012638);广州市基础研究计划项目(2020020303320)
作者简介:第一作者:曹学鹏(1982-),男,副教授,博士.研究方向:机电控制系统及工业机器人应用.E-mail:tiepeng2001@chd.edu.cn;通信作者:张弓,E-mail:gong.zhang@giat.ac.cn
引用文本:
曹学鹏,脱帅华,张弓,吴月玉,张雨航,樊豪,赵睿英,冯艳丽.焊接机器人焊缝跟踪方法及路径规划研究[J].工程科学与技术,2022,54(2):196-204.
CAO Xuepeng,TUO Shuaihua,ZHANG Gong,WU Yueyu,ZHANG Yuhang,FAN Hao,ZHAO Ruiying,FENG Yanli.Research on Welding Seam Tracking Method and Path Planning of Welding Robot[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2022,54(2):196-204.