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工程科学与技术:2021,53(4):23-32
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城乡混合有机垃圾快速稳定化及资源化利用技术的研究构想与前景展望
(1.东北农业大学 生命科学学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030;2.中国环境科学研究院 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室,北京 100012;3.同济大学 环境科学与工程学院,上海 200082;4.四川大学 化学工程学院,四川 成都 610065;5.南京农业大学 资源与环境科学学院,江苏 南京 210032)
Research Conception and Prospect of Rapid Stabilization and Resource Utilization Technology During Aerobic Fermentation Urban and Rural Mixed Organic Waste
(1.College of Life Sci., Northeast Agricultural Univ., Harbin 150030, China;2.State Key Lab. of Environmental Benchmarking and Risk Assessment, Chinese Academy of Environmental Sci., Beijing 100012, China;3.School of Environmental Sci. and Eng., Tongji Univ., Shanghai 200082, China;4.School of Chemical Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;5.College of Resources and Environmental Sci., Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing 210032, China)
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投稿时间:2021-04-12    修订日期:2021-06-02
中文摘要: 城乡混合有机垃圾包括易腐垃圾及部分农业废弃物,其产量大、成分复杂、含水率及养分含量高。目前,好氧发酵已成为其资源化处理处置关键技术之一,但因转化效率低、副产物风险不明等原因限制了其在中国的应用。因此,针对中国有机垃圾好氧发酵瓶颈问题,通过对中国城乡混合有机垃圾资源化利用技术进行对比分析,明确好氧发酵处理有机固体废弃物的优势,并深入解析好氧发酵过程中有机质转化方式,揭示好氧发酵处理有机垃圾面对的主要问题。在此基础上,进一步明确影响好氧发酵产物高效稳定化及资源化利用的主要影响因素。针对上述问题,提出城乡混合有机垃圾快速稳定化及资源化利用技术研究构想,即好氧发酵工艺过程中,解析城乡混合有机垃圾好氧发酵微生物代谢网络定向转化的调控原理;研发智屏显示—在线监测—反馈调控等智能一体式快速稳定化技术装备;攻克生物强化水解—微生物碳泵定向转化—功能材料钝化固碳微生物细胞微工厂定向腐殖化、副产物风险评估—原位阻控—再循环利用等增质控污技术,构建资源化产物深加工—分质评估—属性互补等末端对“征”利用技术。集成快速稳定化与资源化利用技术装备模块体系,针对技术模块的互补性、资源可持续利用性特征,建立与区域匹配的对“征”示范工程,形成商业化推广模式。这种围绕有机垃圾好氧发酵原位削减、过程增质控污、末端资源化利用的国家科技重大需求,开展相关研发与工程示范,旨在为中国城乡混合有机垃圾资源化处理提供技术支撑。
Abstract:Urban and rural mixed organic waste, including perishable waste and partial agricultural waste, are high yield, complex composition, high water content and nutrient content. Aerobic fermentation is one of the key technologies for the utilization of this resource, but the application is limited in China due to the low conversion efficiency and unknown risk of by-products. Therefore, in view of the bottleneck problem of aerobic fermentation of organic waste in China, the resource utilization technologies of urban and rural mixed organic waste were compared and analyzed, the advantages of aerobic fermentation in the treatment of organic solid waste was clarified, the transformation mode of organic matter in the process of aerobic fermentation was deeply analyzed, and the main problems faced by aerobic fermentation in the treatment of organic waste was revealed. Accordingly, the main factors affecting the efficient stabilization and resource utilization of aerobic fermentation products was further identified. The concept of rapid stabilization and resource utilization of urban and rural mixed organic waste, named as detecting the regulation principle of microbial metabolic network during organic waste aerobic fermentation, was proposed. Meanwhile, intelligent integrated rapid stabilization technology and equipment (intelligent screen display-online monitoring-feedback control) was also developed overcome the technology of directional humification and pollution enhancement in microbial factory, the technology of deep processing-quality evaluation- attribute complementary of resource products to utilize resource products by their characteristics was constructed. In order to provide technical support for the resource treatment of urban and rural mixed organic waste in China, researches and demonstration projects will be carried out to meet the major needs of national science and technology, such as in-situ reduction of organic waste by aerobic fermentation, pollution control in the process, and resource utilization of the end products.
文章编号:202100307     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1906400)
作者简介:第一作者:魏自民(1969-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:有机固体废弃物资源化处理处置.E-mail:weizimin@neau.edu.cn
引用文本:
魏自民,黄彩红,谢丽,袁绍军,杨兴民,吴俊秋.城乡混合有机垃圾快速稳定化及资源化利用技术的研究构想与前景展望[J].工程科学与技术,2021,53(4):23-32.
WEI Zimin,HUANG Caihong,XIE Li,YUAN Shaojun,YANG Xingmin,WU Junqiu.Research Conception and Prospect of Rapid Stabilization and Resource Utilization Technology During Aerobic Fermentation Urban and Rural Mixed Organic Waste[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2021,53(4):23-32.