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工程科学与技术:2020,52(5):62-70
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重大滑坡灾害全过程调控减灾技术及试验验证与潜在应用
(1.武汉大学 土木建筑工程学院,湖北 武汉 430072;2.浙江大学 建筑工程学院,浙江 杭州 310058;3.长江勘测规划设计研究有限责任公司,湖北 武汉 430010;4.中国人民解放军军事科学院 国防工程研究院,北京 100850)
Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Technology for the Whole Process of Serious Landslides and Its Experimental Verification and Potential Applications
(1.School of Civil Eng., Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, China;2.College of Civil Eng. and Architecture, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310058, China;3.Changjiang Inst. of Survey, Planning, Design and Research, Wuhan 430010, China;4.Inst. of Defence Eng., AMS, PLA, Beijing 100850, China)
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投稿时间:2020-04-22    修订日期:2020-06-21
中文摘要: 青藏高原其独特的地质背景和复杂的地理环境,滑坡灾害极为发育。由于构造活动强烈、河谷深切、斜坡高陡,内外动力耦合作用下诱发的高位崩滑往往具有极高的位能和超远的位移,对其危害范围内的构筑物和人类活动等造成严重破坏。因此,青藏高原重大滑坡灾害防治应从源头区-运动区-堆积区进行全过程调控和综合治理,因势利导地进行总体设计。本文对重大滑坡灾害源区、运动区的处置措施、减灾机理及其应用范围进行了探讨,根据青藏高原滑坡特点,研发了适应高海拔地区的变管径高扬程虹吸排水技术,抵抗滑体大变形的新型抗滑桩结构,以及抗冲击耗能减震棚洞结构。室内虹吸排水试验和混凝土梁试样的4点弯试验结果表明:1)对于不同扬程的试验,4.0 mm+6.5 mm的虹吸系统排水能力均强于4.0 mm的虹吸排水系统,变管径使得排水能力提升64%~117%;2)随着扬程的升高,6.5 mm虹吸排水系统排水能力下降明显比4.0 mm+6.5 mm快,变管径使得随扬程升高排水能力下降比例减小了28%~42%;3)相较于传统抗滑桩,新型钢绞线抗滑桩不仅提高了抗折强度,而且韧性更好,可承载更大的变形而不发生破坏。以金沙水电站山梁子高位崩塌滑坡灾害治理为例,开展了从滑源区到运动区全过程的综合治理设计和应用实施,为金沙水电工程的安全施工与长期运行提供保障。
中文关键词: 青藏高原  重大滑坡  源区  运动区  减灾技术
Abstract:The Qinghai-Tibet plateau has its unique geological background and complex geographical environment and landslide hazards in the plateau are well developed. Under complex tectonic dynamic action and the coupling action from the exogenic and endogenic geological processes, rock avalanches developed in Qinghai-Tibet plateau often have extremely high potential energy and migration displacement. This will cause serious damage to the structures and human activities within the range of influence. Therefore, the prevention and mitigation of serious landslides in Qinghai-Tibet plateau should be carried out in the whole process from the source area to the movement area, and the optimization design for treatment measures should be made according to the situation. In this study, the disposal measures, disaster reduction mechanism and application scope of severe landslides are discussed. According to the characteristics of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, a high-lift siphon drainage system with variable diameters for landslides in high-altitude regions was developed. A new type of anti-slide pile structure which can resist large deformation of sliding body and a protective shed structure with shock-resistant and energy-absorbing characteristics. The Shanliangzi landslide in Jinsha hydropower station is selected as a case study. The results of indoor siphon drainage tests and four-point bending tests for concrete beam show that 1) with respect to different lifts, the drainage capacity of the siphon system with diameters of 4.0 mm+6.5 mm is obviously better than that with a diameter of 4.0 mm, and the variable diameter siphon system brings 64%~117% improvements in drainage capacity. 2) as the lift increases, the drainage capacity of the siphon system with a diameter of 6.5 mm decreases more quickly than that with 4.0 mm+6.5 mm, and the variable diameter siphon system brings 28%~42% reduction for the decline ratio of the drainage capacity with growth of the lift, and 3) compared with the traditional anti-slide pile, the new type of steel strand anti-slide pile not only improves the flexural strength, but also has better toughness, which can sustain more deformation without damage. The optimum design and comprehensive control measures from the slide source area to the movement area are carried out for the Shanliangzi landslide, which ensure the safe construction and long-term operation of Jinsha hydropower station.
文章编号:202000324     中图分类号:P642.22    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研发专项项目(2008YFC1505005)
作者简介:姜清辉(1972-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:高边坡稳定分析与安全控制.E-mail:jqh1972@whu.edu.cn
引用文本:
姜清辉,郑俊,位伟,李勤军,陈胜云,吕庆.重大滑坡灾害全过程调控减灾技术及试验验证与潜在应用[J].工程科学与技术,2020,52(5):62-70.
JIANG Qinghui,ZHENG Jun,WEI Wei,LI Qinjun,CHEN Shengyun,YU Qing.Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Technology for the Whole Process of Serious Landslides and Its Experimental Verification and Potential Applications[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2020,52(5):62-70.