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工程科学与技术:2020,52(5):117-124
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基于SFM地形测量多尺度河工模型结构变化研究
(1.福州大学 土木工程学院,福建 福州 350116;2.北京交通大学 土木建筑工程学院,北京 100044;3.中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京 100038)
Experimental Study of the Multi-scales Riverbed Structure Change Based on SFM Topographic Survey
(1.School of Civil Eng., Fuzhou Univ., Fuzhou 350116, China;2.School of Civil Eng., Beijing Jiaotong Univ., Beijing 100044, China;3.China Inst. of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, State Key Lab. of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Beijing 100038, China)
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投稿时间:2019-11-05    修订日期:2020-04-14
中文摘要: 水沙运动造成的河床冲淤演变是自然界普遍存在的现象,常造成河道淤积、河岸变形、海岸后退、水库淤积库容减少等实际工程问题,其与水利工程设计、建设和运行紧密相关。研究精确、高效的河床3维地形测量方法并分析冲淤量变化,对河工模型试验及实际工程应用具有重要意义。本文开展不同水流条件下的推移质输沙试验,基于运动摄像恢复结构技术(structure from motion,SFM)方法,对床面冲淤前后分别进行3维地形重构,获取地形稠密点云。在此基础上,插入相同控制点获取实际地形3维坐标,并将3维点云坐标内插值在床面网格上,冲淤前后相减以精确获取整个床面冲淤前后变化。本文对使用SFM技术测量河床地形所涉及的拍摄方法、控制点选取、河道区域网格化及插值方法进行了介绍,总结了关键技术。研究结果表明:1)基于SFM方法,分别对有、无块状模型的棋盘格进行体积计算,验证本方法相对误差小于4%;2)将此方法用于计算水槽试验冲淤量,与实际称量值对比,其结果值相对误差小于5%;3)本方法应用于大型河工物理模型试验时,其河床冲淤量计算相对误差小于10%。该方法对水槽试验和河床物理模型试验均适用,可快速高效重构冲刷前后河床3维地形,具有较高精度,为研究河床冲淤变化及开展水利模型试验提供新的思路和参考。
Abstract:The variations of erosion or deposition of the riverbed caused by water and sediment movement are common phenomena in nature, which often cause practical engineering problems such as river sedimentation, river bed deformation, coastal retreat, and reservoir capacity reduction. These are closely related to the design, construction and operation of hydraulic projects. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop accurate and efficient methods of three dimensional riverbed terrains reconstruction and analyzing the volumes of erosion or deposition. In this paper, flume experiments with bed load sediment transport were conducted to study the river bed evolution under different flow conditions. The methods of Structure from Motion (SFM) were introduced in details, containing the shooting method, selection of GCPs, the establishment of river-channel mesh and the interpolation method. Based on the SFM method, three-dimensional terrain reconstructions of bed surface were carried out before and after scouring experiments to obtain the dense point clouds. On this basis, the same ground control points (GCPs) were fixed to acquire the actual three dimensional terrain coordinates, and then three dimensional point cloud coordinates were interpolated in the river bed mesh to accurately analyze erosional and depositional quantities of the entire bed. The results show that: 1) the volumes with or without the presence of block model were calculated by SFM respectively to verify that the relative error of the present method is less than 4%. 2) The variation qualities of erosion or deposition calculated by the SFM method and the qualities of the actual weighing were compared and the relative error of the present method is less than 5%. 3) This method was also applied to the large-scale river model experiment and the relative error is less than 10%. The results above show that present method can be applied to both flume experiment and larger river bed physical model experiment, to reconstruct the three-dimensional bed topography quickly and efficiently. The paper offers an innovative idea of studying bed evolution in hydraulic model experiments.
文章编号:201901075     中图分类号:TV142    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51709047;51209222)
作者简介:王浩(1985-),男,助理研究员,博士.研究方向:水力学及河流动力学.E-mail:wanghao_0512@163.com
引用文本:
王浩,彭国平,陈启刚,龚家国.基于SFM地形测量多尺度河工模型结构变化研究[J].工程科学与技术,2020,52(5):117-124.
WANG Hao,PENG Guoping,CHEN Qigang,GONG Jiaguo.Experimental Study of the Multi-scales Riverbed Structure Change Based on SFM Topographic Survey[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2020,52(5):117-124.