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工程科学与技术:2020,52(1):46-55
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开封仿遗址土水理性质的改良研究
(1.河南大学 土木建筑学院,河南 开封 475004;2.开封城墙文物保护管理所,河南 开封 475004)
Study on the Improvement of Soil Water in Kaifeng Imitation Site
(1.School of Civil Eng. and Architecture, Henan Univ., Kaifeng 475004, China;2.Kaifeng City Wall Cultural Relics Protection Management Office, Kaifeng 475004, China)
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投稿时间:2019-04-23    修订日期:2019-09-17
中文摘要: 黄河泛滥造成开封地域水位较低且含盐量较高,毛细作用下使以土为主建造而成的开封城墙底部处于潮湿干燥交替的状态。在盐渍、冻胀等作用下引起城墙的不断劣化,如何控制毛细作用的发生为历史建筑保护的关键问题。为探究城墙土的保护和修复方法,本文确定4类16种试样的仿遗址土,分别含有0、1%、3%、5%质量比的有机硅憎水剂SHP-60改良仿遗址土的毛细吸水和浸水崩解试验,探究不同SHP-60含量下仿遗址土水理性质的改良效果,并利用扫描电镜拍摄SEM图片,观察土样的微观结构,发现SHP-60分子吸附土颗粒表面发生团聚和连接作用,内部孔隙减少形成防水膜,增加土样的耐水性。揭示SHP-60改良仿遗址土的作用机理。结果表明:土颗粒孔隙周围的SHP-60覆膜可以产生较大的疏水力,有效增强土颗粒的疏水特性,仿遗址土随着SHP-60掺量的增加,水理性质改良效果越好,其中SHP-60掺量为5%的仿遗址土较改良前毛细吸水质量降低92.34%,有效地降低了仿遗址土的毛细作用力,使土的耐水性提高。浸水试验发现,气泡产生的多少与反应剧烈程度随SHP-60掺量的增加而降低。少量SHP-60的掺量可以有效提高仿遗址土的耐崩解性能。3%~5%掺量的有机硅憎水剂能够改变仿遗址土的微观结构界面特性,减少内部孔隙,增加土样密实度,形成的防水膜改变了颗粒间表面张力的作用方向,形成的疏水力阻止了水的浸入,进而有效地提高了仿遗址土的耐水性能,阻挡地下毛细水对遗址土的侵蚀,研究结果为土遗址修复提供了新思路。
中文关键词: 仿遗址土  改良  毛细吸水  浸水试验
Abstract:The flooding of the Yellow River results in lower water level and higher salt content in Kaifeng area. Under capillary effect, the bottom of Kaifeng city wall, which is mainly composed of soil, is in a state of wet and dry alternation. Under the action of salinity and frost heaving, the deterioration of city walls constantly occur. How to control the occurrence of capillarity is the key problem in the protection of historic buildings. In this paper, the imitation site soils of 4 types and 16 samples are tested, which contain 0, 1%, 3% and 5% mass ratio by the water repellent SHP-60. In order to explore the protection and repair methods of the wall soil,the capillary water absorption and water immersion disintegration test of the imitation site soil was improved by the water repellent SHP-60. By exploring the improvement effect of soil water properties of imitation sites under different SHP-60 content, and taking SEM picture by scanning electron microscopy and observing the microstructures of soil samples, it was found that the surface of SHP-60 adsorbed soil particles was birdnesting and connected, and the internal pore was reduced to form a waterproof film, which increased the water resistance of soil samples. The results showed that the SHP-60 coating around the pores of the soil particles can generate a large hydrophobic force and effectively enhance the hydrophobic properties of the soil particles. With the increase of SHP-60 content, the improvement effect of water properties is better. The imitation site soil with SHP-60 content of 5% can reduce the capillary water absorption quality by 92.34%. The immersion test found that a small amount of SHP-60 can effectively improve the disintegration performance of the imitation site soil. The 3%~5% of silicone water repellent can change the micro-structure of imitation site soil, reduce internal porosity and increase soil compactness. The formed waterproof film can improve the hydrophobic property of surface tension, and then effectively improve the water resistance of imitated site soil and prevent the erosion of site soil by underground capillary water. The research results provide a new idea for the restoration of soil sites.
文章编号:201900370     中图分类号:TU57    文献标志码:
基金项目:河南省科技厅基础与前沿研究项目(162300410012)
作者简介:岳建伟(1971-),男,教授.研究方向:土动力学及古建筑修复.E-mail:yjwchn@126.com
引用文本:
岳建伟,林健,王永锋,刘天军,张焱飞,王思远,王巍智.开封仿遗址土水理性质的改良研究[J].工程科学与技术,2020,52(1):46-55.
YUE Jianwei,LIN Jian,WANG Yongfeng,LIU Tianjun,ZHANG Yanfei,WANG Siyuan,WANG Weizhi.Study on the Improvement of Soil Water in Kaifeng Imitation Site[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2020,52(1):46-55.