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工程科学与技术:2019,51(4):1-10
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泥沙补给突变下的山洪灾害研究构想和成果展望
(四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室, 四川 成都 610065)
Research Framework and Anticipated Results of Flash Flood Disasters Under the Mutation of Sediment Supply
(State key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
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投稿时间:2019-03-25    修订日期:2019-05-18
中文摘要: 全球山地面积占陆地面积的30%,每年有超过5 000人死于山洪灾害。中国山洪灾害防治区面积占陆地面积的48%,居住人口占全国人口的44.2%。2000年以来,中国每年约1 000人因山洪灾害死亡,山洪灾害死亡人数占洪涝灾害死亡人数的70%左右。山地区域地形险峻,地表破碎,表层风化层厚,局地暴雨频发,洪水陡涨猛落,沟床冲淤调整剧烈,山洪水沙运动耦合致灾突出。山洪灾害防治已成为中国工农业、能源、交通、国防安全等国家重大工程基础建设、区域社会经济发展和人民生命财产安全面临的突出难题,暴雨山洪灾害研究仍是中国当前防洪减灾工作的重点和难点。面对严峻的山洪水沙灾害风险形势,传统忽略泥沙运动影响的防灾理论与技术难以解决山洪水沙耦合致灾问题,无法满足目前重大山洪水沙灾害防治的实际需求,突出表现为泥沙补给突变对重大山洪灾害的成灾效应认识不够、山洪水沙运动耦合成灾区识别不清、山洪水沙灾害防治技术针对性不强、山洪水沙运动防灾减灾的区域联动性考虑不全等。因此,急需通过系统梳理暴雨山洪水沙运动规律,实现山洪水沙耦合成灾理论创新,提出重大山洪水沙灾害的源头治理和区域全面防范的有效措施,显著提高中国山洪水沙灾害防治技术水平,为保障国家重大工程安全和人民生命财产安全提供理论基础和技术支撑。长期以来的暴雨山洪灾害预报预警理论及防治技术研究多以降雨-径流-水位分析为主,以临界降雨/水位阈值条件为判据,较少涉及泥沙补给突变引发的沟床剧烈调整致灾机制,而大量的暴雨山洪灾害现场表明泥沙补给与洪水的耦合作用是重大山洪灾害的关键源动力。“泥沙补给突变下的山洪灾害研究”项目以山区暴雨山洪灾害现场调查与灾害试验反演模拟为基础,采用水文学、土力学、水力学及河流动力学等理论方法和水沙运动数值模拟技术,突出研究山区小流域暴雨洪水、坡地破坏产沙、宽级配卵砾石输沙以及沟床来沙超量补给的水沙运动耦合致灾过程。通过系统研究山地区域暴雨洪水及其产沙特征、复杂沟床输沙动力,以及超量泥沙补给下的水沙运动及其沟床响应规律,以揭示山地区域暴雨山洪过程与泥沙补给突变的沟床响应致灾机理,为山地区域山洪灾害预警及灾害防治提供依据,并及时丰富和完善暴雨山洪灾害所涉及的水沙运动规律与沟床响应致灾防治技术。
Abstract:The mountain area accounts for 30% of the land area globally, with more than 5 000 people dying each year from flash floods. China’s flash flood disaster control zone covers 48% of the land area, with the living population accounting for 44.2% of the country’s population. Since 2 000, about 1 000 people in China have died each year as a result of flash floods, and the number of deaths from flash floods accounts for about 70% of the death toll from flood disasters. A mountain area often shows the characteristics of steep terrain, broken surface, thick soil layer and frequent rainstorm, and thus, the mountain flood and sediment movement coupling causes the disaster to be prominent because of the steep rise and fall of the flood and the dramatic changes of riverbeds. The prevention and control of flash flood disaster has become a prominent problem to China’s major infrastructure constructions such as agriculture, energy, transportation and national defense security, regional social and economic development and the safety of people’s lives and property. The study of rainstorm and flash flood disaster is still the focus of flood control and disaster reduction in China. Facing the severe disaster risk situation of flood and sediment transport, it is difficult to solve the problem of disaster prevention using the traditional theory and technology of sediment movement, which do not consider the actual coupling process of flood and sediment. In fact, there is not enough understanding of the catastrophic effect of sediment supply mutation on major flash flood disaster. Nowadays, the mechanism between flood and sediment transport coupled into the disaster area identification is unclear, and the prevention and control technology of flood and sediment disaster is not perfect in mountain area. Therefore, it is urgent to systematically sort out the law of flood and sediment transport in rainstorm mountain, by realizing the theoretical innovation of the coupling disaster of flood and sediment movement, putting forward the effective measures of source control and regional comprehensive prevention of major flood and sediment disasters, and significantly improving the technical level of flood and sediment disaster prevention and control in China. It will provide theoretical basis and technical support for safeguarding the safety of major projects in the country and the safety of people’s lives and property. The research on early warning theory and prevention and control technology of rainstorm and flash flood disaster has been studied mainly by rainfall-runoff-water level analysis, taking the critical rainfall/water level threshold condition as the criterion, and less involving the severe adjustment mechanism of riverbed caused by the mutation of sediment supply. But a large number of rainstorm flash flood disaster scene shows that the coupling between sediment supply and flood is the key source power of major flash flood disaster. The project “Research on flash flood disaster under the mutation of sediment supply” is based on the field investigation of rainstorm and flood disaster in mountainous areas and the inversion simulation of disaster experiment. Through the theoretical analysis of hydrology, soil mechanics, hydraulics and river dynamics, in combined with the numerical simulation, the applicants will investigate the coupling disaster process of storm flood in typical small watersheds, sediment from landslide, gravel and pebble transport with a large range of size distribution and the excess sediment supply in a gully. The characteristics of storm flood and sediment in mountain regions, the complex transport power of the riverbed, the water and sediment motion and channel response patterns with excessive sediment supply will be systematically investigated. The response disaster mechanism of rainstorm flood process in the mountain region and the mutation of sediment supply will be clarified. The forgoing researches will provide theoretical and technical support for the early warning and prevention of flood disaster in the mountain region, and will enrich and perfect the hydrological sediment motion and the disaster prevention method during the flood disaster.
文章编号:201900261     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(51639007);国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC1502504)
作者简介:王协康(1970-),男,研究员.研究方向:水力学及河流动力学.E-mail:wangxiekang@scu.edu.cn;王协康,四川大学研究员、博士生导师,教育部"新世纪优秀人才支持计划"入选者、四川省学术和技术带头人、"霍英东教育基金会第十届高等院校青年教师奖"获得者,国家级精品课程《水力学》主讲教师。主要从事水力学及河流动力学、河流地貌学等领域的教学与科研工作,在山区河流水流结构、泥沙运动及河床演变、暴雨山洪灾害等方面具有长期的研究积累。主持和参与多项国家级项目和横向生产项目,发表SCI收录论文30余篇。2001年被国务院三峡工程建设委员会评为"三峡工程研究"先进工作者,2002-2003年度获四川省科技进步三等奖2项、2010年度获教育部科技进步一等奖1项,2013年获教育部科技进步二等奖1项。
引用文本:
王协康,刘兴年,周家文.泥沙补给突变下的山洪灾害研究构想和成果展望[J].工程科学与技术,2019,51(4):1-10.
WANG Xiekang,LIU Xingnian,ZHOU Jiawen.Research Framework and Anticipated Results of Flash Flood Disasters Under the Mutation of Sediment Supply[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2019,51(4):1-10.