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(四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室, 水利水电学院, 四川 成都 610065)
Water Disasters and Their Countermeasures in Mountains (Invited Contribution)
(State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China)
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投稿时间:2018-03-26    修订日期:2018-04-20
中文摘要: 全球重大自然灾害正深刻影响着人类的生存和发展,如何更有效地应对各类自然灾害尤为重要。2008年“5·12”汶川大地震后,“地球人都要有灾害意识,地球人都要有灾害教育”已深入人心,中国人的灾害意识和防灾技术水平均得到了较大幅度的提升。由于独特的区域地质构造、地形地貌和水文气象等条件,中国西部地区一直是水灾害频发的区域,防灾减灾工作已成为影响区域社会经济及国家整体发展的重要方面。作为国家布局在西部的高水平研究型综合大学,四川大学传承和创新了都江堰的治水智慧,在应对高坝泄洪与防洪安全、高坝工程结构安全、山洪泥沙灾害与滑坡防治、流域生态环境保护等山区水灾害方面进行了积极探索,取得了一系列重要成果。主要有:1)开发细观实验与模拟技术,揭示了高坝水力学复杂水流现象的细观机理,建立了更加可靠的判别准则和计算方法,形成系统的细观水力学体系,并创新地提出了多级泄洪原理与技术;2)原创性地提出了地质力学模型破坏模拟与综合法试验新技术,揭示了高坝工程整体结构安全响应机制,建立了能够准确反映受复杂地质环境及超标洪水等因素影响下高坝-坝基-库水整体结构安全评价体系;3)揭示了山洪与泥沙共同作用下“小水大灾”机制,提出了特大山洪泥沙灾害“降阶防控”技术,将山洪泥沙灾害致灾不确定性降到可防控范围;4)引入应用三维激光扫描仪等新设备与技术实现了滑坡变形监测从“点、线、面”拓展到三维空间整体,提升了水动力型滑坡的灾害监测预警水平以及灾害应急响应能力;5)针对滑坡-堰塞坝物质组成和结构特性变异性大的问题,提出了滑坡-堰塞湖分类应急处置与综合治理技术;6)针对西南地区地理、生态与环境特点,提出了生态需水配置和过鱼、梯级水库水温预测成套方法和低温水控制、高坝泄水总溶解气体(TDG)过饱和的预测与调控等一整套维护水生生物生境的关键技术,将生态环境保护研究从工程局部及单一水环境领域,拓展到山区流域整体系统并形成多学科领域交叉的综合科学技术体系。最后,针对中国西部山区河流水灾害的特点以及国家防灾减灾救灾的总体需求,提出了变化环境下的水灾害形成与演化、耦合致灾机理与临界判据、水灾害动力灾变机制与演化过程、突变河流的生境-生物相互作用机制、灾变河流的生态演变机制和新平衡态、水灾害监测预警和风险评估、基础大数据库与云平台、水灾害流域协同管理与灾后重建等一系列山区水灾害领域的重大前沿科学技术问题,有助于促进下一步防灾减灾相关学科领域研究工作的发展。
Abstract:Big natural disasters worldwide are deeply affecting survival and development of humankind. How to effectively deal with various types of natural disasters is particularly important. After the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, public awareness about disasters in China has increased considerably and people's understanding of disasters has been greatly improved. That "People on the Earth must have disaster awareness and disaster education" has already become the common sense. Owing to its particular regional geological structure, topographic conditions, hydro-meteorology and other factors, the Western China is a region with frequent water-related disasters. Prevention of and reduction in water disasters have been important for overall development of the region and the country. As a high-level research national university in West China, building on the wisdom of water management of the historical Dujiangyan project, Sichuan University has made many innovations. Through engineering and research projects, such as flood discharge and flood control of high dams, structural safety of high dam projects, prevention of mountain torrents,sediment disasters,and landslides, and ecological environmental protection in river basins, Sichuan University has made a series of important achievements. They include:1) development of meso-scale experiments and simulation techniques to reveal the meso-mechanism of complex water flow phenomena of high dam hydraulics, to establish more reliable criteria and calculation methods, to form a systematic meso-mechanical system, and to innovatively propose multi-level flood discharge mechanism and techniques; 2) new technology of geomechanical model destruction simulation and comprehensive test, which can reveal the overall structural safety response mechanism of high dam engineering, and establishment of a high dam-foundation-reservoir safety evaluation system capable of accurately reflecting the influence of complex geological environments and excessive floods; 3) revealing the "little water with big disaster" mechanism under joint action of mountain floods and sedimentation, and development of the "reduction of scale control and prevention" technology for extreme flood and sediment disasters that can make the uncertainty of the disasters caused by floods and sediments to a preventable scale; 4) introduction of new equipment and technologies such as the three-dimensional laser scanners for landslide deformation monitoring and expansion from "points, lines, and surfaces" to three-dimensional space as a whole, which improves the level of disaster monitoring and early warning of water-powered landslides and disaster emergency response capabilities; 5) a categorized emergency and comprehensive treatment technology for landslide-barrier lakes suitable to various material composition and structural characteristics of landslides and dams; 6) a complete set of methods for ecological water requirement allocation and prediction of water temperature for fish and cascade reservoirs, low-temperature water control, and prediction and regulation of over-saturated total dissolved gas of high dams aiming at characteristics of geography, ecology and environment in southwest region, which has expanded research on ecological and environmental protection from the local engineering and single water environment areas to the overall system of mountain river basins and formed an integrated scientific and technological system that intersects multiple disciplines. At last, aiming at characteristics of water disasters in mountainous rivers in Western China and the general needs for national disaster prevention, mitigation and relief, this paper proposes a series of scientific and technological questions for future research, which will facilitate development of research work in related disciplines for disaster prevention and reduction in the future. The issues include impacts of global climate change on water disasters, coupled disaster environments and regional evolution laws, dynamic processes and catastrophes of water disasters, habitat-biological interaction mechanisms of mutant rivers, ecological evolution mechanism of catastrophic rivers, water disaster risk theory, water disaster monitoring and early warning, collaborative management of water and disaster basins, basic large databases and cloud platforms, and others.
文章编号:201800345     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
XIE Heping,XU Weilin,LIU Chao,YANG Xingguo,XIE Hongqiang,NIE Ruihua,ZHOU Jiawen,AN Ruidong,TIAN Zhong,XIAO Mingli.Water Disasters and Their Countermeasures in Mountains (Invited Contribution)[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2018,50(3):1-14.