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工程科学与技术:2018,50(3):95-104
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滑坡-堰塞湖应急处理与引流泄水优化技术
(1.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室, 四川 成都 610065;2.四川大学 水利水电学院, 四川 成都 610065;3.南昌大学 建筑工程学院, 江西 南昌 330031)
Emergency Treatment and Optimization Technology of Discharge Chute Design for Landslide-dammed Lake
(1.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;2.College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;3.School of Civil Eng. and Architecture, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang 330031, China)
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投稿时间:2018-03-15    修订日期:2018-04-04
中文摘要: 堰塞湖的应急处理应按照“科学、安全、主动、快速”的原则,结合具体地形地质环境条件制定一套操作可行且快速有效的措施,在较短时间内最大可能地降低或排出堰塞湖内拦蓄的大量湖水,控制堰塞湖的潜在威胁。综合考虑堰塞湖的坝高、库容、物质组成及危险等级等相关条件的差异,常用的处置方式有开挖泄流槽、开挖引水泄流隧洞、爆破拆除、临时加固、非工程应急避险措施。其中,开挖泄流槽、引流泄水紧急处置堰塞湖的方法适用性广、可操作性强。在实际工程抢险过程中,开挖泄流槽的确定需要重点解决3个关键问题:进水口部位、泄水槽中心线位置及泄流断面形状和尺寸。本文在分析堰塞湖溢流特性的基础上,提出一种行之有效的堰塞湖泄流槽设计及优化技术。该技术基于堰塞坝三维激光扫描高精度DEM模型,采用D8算法模拟水流在堰塞坝上的流动状态,根据堰塞湖溢流时水流总是沿坡降最陡方向流动的特性,寻找出堰塞湖的最优泄水路径。结合现场地质、水文等实际情况,优化计算结果,确定泄水槽中心线并设计泄水槽横断面;复核过流能力和开挖方量,并最终确定设计方案。应用提出的方法对鲁甸红石岩堰塞湖引流泄水方案进行设计,分析结果与实际采用的方案比较一致。
Abstract:Emergency treatments for landslide-dammed lake should be treated in accordance with the principle of "scientifically,safety,proactively and rapidly".Fast and effective measures should discharge dammed water and lower water level and consider the topography and geologic environment of specific landslide dam conditions.Conventional treatment measures include discharge chute excavation,discharge tunnel excavation,blasting demolition,temporary reinforcement and non-engineering emergency measures.Appropriate measures should be selected considering dam height,storage capacity,material composition and hazard grade of landslide dams.Among these measures,the discharge chute excavation measure owns advantages involving strong feasibility,applicability and practicability.Determing the best position of water intake,defining the centerline and the cross section of discharge chute are the three major topics in the field of discharge chute excavation during the emergency treatment.Based on a highly accuracy DEM model of the landslide dam acquired by terrestrial laser scanners,a new optimization technology of discharge chute design method was proposed,which agree well with the general features of water flows among the landslide dam.This technology simulates water flows on landslide DEM model and finds the best discharging path via using D8 algorithm; During the emergency treatment,this method is performed by optimizing the results,defining the centerline and cross section of the discharge chute,and final determining the design scheme as well as rechecking the discharge capacity.Final,an example in the discharge chute design for the Hongshiyan landslide-dammed lake was analyzed and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is reasonable and feasible.
文章编号:201800317     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点资助项目(51639007);水力学与山区河流开发保护重点实验室开放课题资助项目(SKHL1627)
作者简介:杨兴国(1968-),男,教授.研究方向:工程施工与安全控制.E-mail:89022251@163.com
引用文本:
杨兴国,李海波,廖海梅,徐昊,徐富刚,周家文.滑坡-堰塞湖应急处理与引流泄水优化技术[J].工程科学与技术,2018,50(3):95-104.
YANG Xingguo,LI Haibo,LIAO Haimei,XU Hao,XU Fugang,ZHOU Jiawen.Emergency Treatment and Optimization Technology of Discharge Chute Design for Landslide-dammed Lake[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2018,50(3):95-104.