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工程科学与技术:2009,41(Z1):70-75
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汶川地震触发潜在性泥石流研究—— 以岷江上游关山沟为例
(中国科学院 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室,四川 成都 610041)
The Study on the Potential Debris Flow Triggered by Wenchuan Earthquake:A Case Study of the Guanshan Gully in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River
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中文摘要: 汶川地震后,由于地震作用,大量的潜在泥石流沟被激活成活动性泥石流沟,这些泥石流沟将在今后较长一段时间内处于活跃期,泥石流暴发规模和频率显著增加,威胁灾区人民生命财产安全,影响灾区重建工作的顺利开展。以岷江上游关山沟为例,初步探讨地震触发潜在性泥石流的成因、起动方式、危害等问题。通过对关山沟震前遥感影像、震后航空影像的解译,结合野外考察、访问,该沟可定性为地震触发的典型潜在性泥石流沟。关山沟由潜在性泥石流而转变成活动性、高频泥石流沟,其成因主要是地震引起了流域内大量的崩塌、滑坡,为泥石流提供了丰富的物源条件。通过估算,关山沟由于地震震动导致流域内发育2处滑坡、21处崩塌,松散固体物质储量为122×104 m3。关山沟泥石流的起动方式为在一定的降水条件下,流域上游的滑坡转变成泥石流,沿途接纳两侧山坡表层径流冲刷下来的物质,同时强烈冲刷沟床中松散固体物质以增大泥石流规模,从而形成危害性泥石流。关山沟在P=1%、2%的暴雨频率下,泥石流造成堵河的可能性较大。泥石流一旦堵塞主河,其堵塞回水和溃决洪水将严重威胁到沟口上下游人民生命财产的安全,同时也威胁到“213国道”的安全通行。
Abstract:After the Wenchuan earthquake,a lot of potential debris flow gullies are activated as active debris flow gullies because of the earthquake. These debris flow gullies will be in the active period for a long time in the future. The debris flow outbreak scale and frequency increase obviously, which threatens life and property safety of the people in the disaster area and influences the reconstruction of the disaster area. This paper takes Guanshan gully in the upper minjiang river as an example to discuss about the cause, starting mode and damage of the potential debris flow triggered by the earthquake preliminarily. The Guanshan gully can be defined as a typical potential debris flow gully through the interpretation of remote sensing image before the earthquake and aerial image after the earthquake. The Guanshan gully changes from a potential debris flow gully into an active and high frequency debris flow gully. The cause is that the earthquake results in many collapses and landslides in the basin, which provides rich material sources for the debris flow. Through estimation, there are 2 landslides, 21 collapses and 7.8 million m3 loose solid materials in the Guanshan gully. The starting mode of the debris flow in the Guanshan gully is that under the condition of precipitation, the landslides in the upper basin turn into debris flows, then with the acceptance of the materials runoff scoured from the two side slope surface, the debris flows scour the loose materials in the gully bed strongly to increase debris flow scale at the same time, therefore harmful debris flows are formed. If the rainstorm frequency of P equals to 1% or 2%, the blockage caused by debris flows has more possibility. Once debris flows block the main river, the blockage backwater and outburst flood will threaten the safety of people’s life and property in the upper and lower river. at the same time, debris flow will threaten the safety of “213 provincial road”.
文章编号:20090348     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家973计划资助项目(2008CB425803);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目课题(KZCX2-YW-Q3-5-2);国家科技支撑计划(2006BAC10B04)
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柳金峰,游勇,范建容.汶川地震触发潜在性泥石流研究—— 以岷江上游关山沟为例[J].工程科学与技术,2009,41(Z1):70-75.
.The Study on the Potential Debris Flow Triggered by Wenchuan Earthquake:A Case Study of the Guanshan Gully in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2009,41(Z1):70-75.