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工程科学与技术:2009,41(Z1):37-44
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汶川地震区次生山地灾害监测预警体系初步构想
(1.西南民族大学 电气信息工程学院,四川 成都 610041;2.中国科学院水利部 成都山地灾害与环境研究所,四川 成都 610041)
Design of the Geohazard Monitoring and Warning System in Wenchuan Earthquake Area
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中文摘要: “5·12”汶川地震诱发了大量的崩塌、滑坡等地质灾害,崩塌滑坡堵塞主河形成堰塞湖,并为泥石流的形成提供了丰富的固体物质来源,在未来3~5年内泥石流灾害将成为震区的主要灾害之一,危害居民、交通、通讯和重要工程设施安全。构建系统的次生山地灾害监测预警网络和体系是震区减灾的重要措施,也是灾区恢复重建防灾体系的重要组成部分。按照规划,四川地震区将专业监测灾害点2998处以及建设6处重点城镇和区域山地灾害监测预警系统。为了保证山地灾害监测预警网络健康运行,监测预警系统须具有无线通讯、无人职守、低功耗且独立电源支持、实时性等功能,参照国内外监测内容,已由山地灾害形成背景条件、激发因素、成灾体、监测系统、综合信息处理平台、预测预报与警报发布等模块,分析了地震条件下山地灾害的形成的临界指标和适应震后环境的监测预警信息传输网络,并建立地震区山地灾害监测预警体系的初步构想。特别针对信息传输问题,提出引入无线传感器网络,绘制应用示意图。
中文关键词: 汶川地震  次生山地灾害  监测  预警
Abstract:The Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008 has induced many secondary disasters, such as collapse, landslide, and dammed lake. These provide conditions for debris flows, which are expected to be one of the major disasters in the quake area in the coming years. A network of monitoring and warning of the geohazards is urgent for the hazard mitigation and homeland reconstruction. About 2998 monitoring sites and six systems are planned in the quake area of Sichuan. These systems should be automatic and timing, with low power cost, wireless communication, and proper power support. The monitored objects and monitoring methods are designed following the existing system at home and abroad. A systematic imagine is proposed on base of the previous studies. The system consists mainly of the forming conditions, stimulus factors, information management platform, and alarming block. Two special techniques are analyzed in details: the critical indices for hazard formation and the networks of information transfer. For the latter, a wireless sensor network is introduced, which arises as a new method in acquiring information with variety of network forms. Such a network can be randomly distributed, self organized, and run in coopera-tion. Combining with the statewide cellular base stations of China Mobile and China Unicom, the system can run in long-term to monitor landslides, dammed lakes, and debris flows from different viewpoints and release alarms. Fi-nally, a flow framework is plotted according to the objects of monitoring.
文章编号:20090344     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划“973”计划资助项目(2008CB425802)
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引用文本:
王玉,陈晓清.汶川地震区次生山地灾害监测预警体系初步构想[J].工程科学与技术,2009,41(Z1):37-44.
.Design of the Geohazard Monitoring and Warning System in Wenchuan Earthquake Area[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2009,41(Z1):37-44.