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工程科学与技术:2009,41(3):90-95
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堰塞湖冲刷及溃决试验研究
(四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065)
Experimental Investigation of Scour and Dam break of Landslide Dam
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中文摘要: 地震引发地震堰塞湖,对下游居民的生命安全造成很大威胁。通过建立一套以高速摄影为主,辅以桩群定位的模型试验方法,研究了堰塞湖从沿程冲刷到溯源冲刷的全过程,观测了溃决的水流和形态变化。观测发现溃口的变化是一个逐步渐变,底部为溯源冲刷,两边逐渐溃塌的过程。漫顶冲刷条件下,堰塞体呈现出全断面的溯源冲刷。随时间的推移,冲刷系数存在由大变小的规律,从空间上存在从上游往下游变小的规律。堰塞体模型的溃口不断扩大,冲积扇形状逐渐变大,向两边和上游延伸,最终形成一个上游窄下游宽、不规则的梯形冲刷沟,此结果可为堰塞湖排险、溃坝洪水研究等参考。
Abstract:Earthquake may trigger Landslide Lake,which is a great threat to the residents living downstream.Using high speed photography cooperated with positioning a group of labeled stakes,a set of test method was established and the whole process from erosion along the line to headcutting,the dam break characteristics of flood and landslide dam’s shape can be studied by this method.Experimental observation indicated that during landslide lake’s releasing period, the change of the channel shape is a gradual process,the erosion in the bottom is a headcutting process in the longitudinal orientation, both sides show gradual collapse process in the lateral orientation.With the experiment going on,scouring coefficient changes from large to small; from front to back of the landslide dam’s model,scouring coefficient changes from large to small.Breach is extending and alluvial fan become bigger and it extends towards both sides and ahead,at last discharge channel extends from breach to both sides,deepens in behind and finally forms an irregular trapeziform.
文章编号:20090312     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究973项目(2007CB714105)
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牛志攀,许唯临,张建民.堰塞湖冲刷及溃决试验研究[J].工程科学与技术,2009,41(3):90-95.
.Experimental Investigation of Scour and Dam break of Landslide Dam[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2009,41(3):90-95.