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工程科学与技术:2009,41(3):63-71
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唐家山堰塞湖库区(北川~禹里段)地震地质灾害触发效应研究
(西南交通大学 土木工程学院,四川 成都 610031)
Research on Trigger Effecting of Earthquake Geohazards in Tang Jiashan Dammed Lake(Beichuan to Yuli)
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中文摘要: “5·12”大地震具有震级高、破坏性强、次生地质灾害严重的特点。通过地震前后对唐家山堰塞湖库区为中心的沿通口河北川~禹里段地震地质灾害现场地质调查,显示崩塌、滑坡和泥石流数量分别由地震前的5、3、0变为地震后的7、51、10个(条),地质灾害发育密度和模数分别由地震前的0.26 个/km、46×104 m3/km变为地震后的1.35 个/km、104×104 m3/km,地震后发育密度及模数分别是地震前的5.19和2.24倍,地震产生的边坡破坏效应极为显著。通过分段剖析,得出以下认识:1)距离发震断裂越近,地质灾害发育密度越高,就北川~禹里段沿通口河两岸岸坡而言,发震断裂上盘3 km范围是地震地质灾害的极(强)发育区,3~6 km范围为中等发育区,6~20 km范围为弱发育区,20 km以外基本不受地震影响;2)地震地质灾害主要发育在顺向岸坡以及斜向~顺向岸坡结构内,且以大型和特大型滑坡为特征,常常发生堵江事件;而在逆向坡及斜向~逆向岸坡结构内地震地质灾害总体不发育,即使有也以崩塌为主,且主要发生在单薄山脊以及地形坡度陡峭处;3)地震对大型松散堆积体等整体复活主要受控于其地形坡度及微地貌特征,地形坡度40°以上以及由缓变陡的转折部位是古滑坡等松散堆积体整体或局部容易被地震触发失稳的充分条件,并非所有的古滑坡等松散堆积体均会被地震诱发而整体复活。
Abstract:“5·12” Wenchuan large earthquake has the characteristics of high seismic magnitude,strong destructive, and serious secondary geological hazard. Through the field geological investigations of geohazards in Tang Jiashan dammed lake(Beichuan to Yuli) before and after the earthquake, it was found that the amount of rockfall,landslide,debris flow changed into 7,51,10 from 5,3,0 separately after earthquake;geohazards development density and modulus changed into 1.35 and 104 from 0.26 per kilometer and 460 thousand m3/km.The effecting of slope failure induced by earthquake was quite significant. Based on the field geological investigations and subsection analysis, the following recognitions were obtained which induced:1) The distance to triggering seismic fault is shorter and geohazards devel opment density is higher, as far as Tang Jiashan dammed lake(Beichuan to Yuli) is concerned, the earthquake geohazards development strongly within limits of 3 km distance to the hanging wall of triggering seismic fault, middle development within limits from 3 km to 6 km, weakly development within limits from 6 km to 20 km, it that the distance beyond 20 km has not influence. 2) The earthquake geohazards mainly development in oblique~bedding bank slope and the geohazards mainly are large and huge landslide, and river blocking up happens frequently; the earthquake geohazards are no development in the whole in oblique~conversing bank slope, and the geohazards mainly are rockfall which mostly occur at thin mountain ridge and steep terrain. 3) The whole reactivation of large accumulation body induced by earthquake is mainly controlled by terrain gradient and micro morphologic unit.Terrain gradien beyond 40° and turning position from gentle slope to steep slope are sufficient conditions for that old landslide or accumulation body wholely or locally losing stability induced by earthquake.
文章编号:20090308     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(40772175,40841025);地质灾害防治与地质灾害保护国家重点实验室“科技减灾、重建家园”开放基金资助项目(DZKJ-08012);西南交通大学科学研究基金资助项目(2008-A01)
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胡卸文,朱海勇,吕小平.唐家山堰塞湖库区(北川~禹里段)地震地质灾害触发效应研究[J].工程科学与技术,2009,41(3):63-71.
.Research on Trigger Effecting of Earthquake Geohazards in Tang Jiashan Dammed Lake(Beichuan to Yuli)[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2009,41(3):63-71.