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工程科学与技术:2020,52(2):10-18
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堰塞湖风险评估快速检测与应急抢险技术和装备研发研究构想与成果展望
(1.长江勘测规划设计研究有限责任公司,湖北 武汉 430010;2.四川大学 水利水电学院,四川 成都 610065;3.四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065;4.香港科技大学 土木与环境工程系,香港 999077)
Research Framework and Anticipated Results of the Rapid Detection of Risk Assessment, Research and Development of Emergency Disposal Technology and Equipment of Dammed Lakes
(1.Changjiang Inst. of Survey, Planning, Design and Research, Wuhan 430010, China;2.College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan Univ., Chengdu 610065, China;3.State Key Lab. of Hydraulics and Mountain River Eng., Sichuan Univ.,Chengdu 610065, China;4.Dept. of Civil and Environment, the Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Hong Kong 999077, China)
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投稿时间:2019-09-23    修订日期:2019-12-16
中文摘要: 中国堰塞湖灾害具有发生频率高、分布范围广、受灾群众多、经济损失大的特点,提升堰塞湖灾害防灾、减灾、救灾能力是国家重大需求。目前,中国堰塞湖风险快速评估与应急抢险技术和装备研究尚处于起步和探索阶段:理论方面,对堰塞坝成生机制及溃决机理的认识尚不够清晰;技术方面,目前已有的堰塞湖风险快速评估方法及应急处置装备尚不能满足堰塞湖高效应急抢险的需求。针对堰塞湖风险快速评估与应急处置这一国家重大需求,拟运用现代地质学、水沙动力学与信息学等多学科综合交叉与融合的手段,以解决基于岸坡地质和运动过程分析的堰塞体形成机理和不同结构及变化环境下的堰塞体溃决机理两大关键科学问题,突破堰塞湖多源信息快速感知与动态识别和结构探测技术、基于携砂水流的堰塞体溃决过程模拟技术、考虑结构形态要素的堰塞湖致灾风险评估技术、堰塞湖高效排水疏通及堰塞体流道控制技术等四大关键技术,形成完善的堰塞湖风险评估体系及应急抢险成套技术和装备。通过开展堰塞体形成与溃决机理及溃决过程、多源信息快速感知与探测、险情应急监控与预警、致灾风险评估、高风险堰塞湖应急处置技术及应急抢险关键装备研发等6个方面的系统研究工作,破解堰塞湖成生机制及溃决机理研究难题,构建堰塞湖风险评估理论体系,最终形成成套的堰塞湖应急处置技术和装备,并进行示范应用,以期通过协作攻关研究提升中国堰塞湖应急处置与抢险水平,并为保障人民生命财产安全提供科技支撑。
Abstract:The dammed lake disasters in China are characterized by high frequency, wide distribution, large number of affected people and great economic loss. Hence, promoting the ability of dammed lake disaster prevention, reduction and relief is a major national need. At present, the rapid risk assessment and emergency rescue technology and equipment research of dammed lake in China still remain in the initial and exploration stage. Theoretically, the formation and outburst mechanisms of dammed lakes are not clearly revealed. Technically, the rapid risk assessment method and emergency rescue equipment cannot provide strong scientific and technological support for the emergency rescue of dammed lakes. Modern geology, hydro-sediment dynamics and informatics were integrated in this research to study the risk assessment and emergency rescue of dammed lakes. This research aimed to solve the following two scientific problems:1) the formation mechanism of dammed lake based on the slope geology condition and sliding process analysis;2) the outburst mechanism of dammed lake under different structure and environment condition. The following four key technologies were expected to be solved:1) rapid sensing of multi-source information of dammed lake, dynamic identification and structural detection technology;2) simulation technology on outburst process of dammed lake based on sand-carrying flow;3) risk assessment technology of dammed lake disaster considering structural morphological elements;4) efficient drainage and dredging technology of dammed lake and flow channel control technology. This research aimed to reveal the formation and outburst mechanism, build the risk assessment theory system of dammed lake, and finally develop the emergency treatment technology and equipment of dammed lake via conducting the following studies:1) formation process of dammed lake and the mechanism and process of dam outburst;2) fast sensing and detection of multi-source information;3) emergency monitoring and early warning;4) risk assessment of dammed lake;5) emergency disposal technology for dammed lakes with high risk;6) research and development of key emergency equipment. It is hoped that the collaborative researches in this research can significantly improve the level of emergency disposal and rescue of China's dammed lakes, and provide science and technology support for the safety of people's lives and properties.
文章编号:201900918     中图分类号:TV143    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1508600)
作者简介:蔡耀军(1963-),男,教授级高级工程师,博士.研究方向:岩土工程及地质灾害防治.E-mail:1761939361@qq.com
引用文本:
蔡耀军,杨兴国,张利民,周家文,彭文祥,范刚.堰塞湖风险评估快速检测与应急抢险技术和装备研发研究构想与成果展望[J].工程科学与技术,2020,52(2):10-18.
CAI Yaojun,YANG Xingguo,ZHANG Limin,ZHOU Jiawen,PENG Wenxiang,FAN Gang.Research Framework and Anticipated Results of the Rapid Detection of Risk Assessment, Research and Development of Emergency Disposal Technology and Equipment of Dammed Lakes[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2020,52(2):10-18.