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工程科学与技术:2019,51(3):1-8
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河湖岸线和内河洲滩资源高效利用与保护中的关键科学技术问题与预期成果展望
(1.长江科学院 水利部江湖治理与防洪重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430010;2.武汉大学 水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430072)
Key Technical Problems and Expected Achievements in Efficient Use and Protection of the Resources of River and Lake Shoreline and Inland River Marshland
(1.Key Lab. of River Regulation and Flood Control of MWR, Changjiang River Scientific Research Inst., Wuhan 430010, China;2.State Key Lab. of Water Resources and Hydropower Eng. Sci., Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, China)
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投稿时间:2019-03-26    修订日期:2019-04-15
中文摘要: 河湖岸线和内河洲滩既是自然界中陆生与水生系统之间重要的过渡地带,也是维系河流、湖泊系统生态健康的关键区域,又是沿岸经济社会发展的重要基础依托。在动态演化中河湖岸线和洲滩的保护与利用之间矛盾突出:岸线抢用与无序利用、占而不用与深水浅用、河道侵占与正常行洪、自然演变与河势控制、刚性护岸与物质连通等,尤其是不合理开发利用的累积效应对防洪、供水、航运和生态环境等的影响严重,甚至难以修复。随着协同推进生态优先和绿色发展理念的提出,研究河湖岸线和内河洲滩资源高效利用与保护关键技术,是当前的迫切需求和发展趋势。国家重点研发计划项目“河湖岸线和内河洲滩资源高效利用与保护关键技术研究”以提出中国河湖岸线分类与功能影响评估理论方法、协调生态环境保护-经济发展二元需求的河湖岸滩保护与利用模式,研发河湖水域及岸线动态监管与功能评估技术,构建河湖岸线动态监管模式与服务平台,为建设生态岸线、平安岸线提供科技支撑为总目标,项目将采取多学科交叉、多手段结合、多方法综合的技术路线,从基础理论、关键技术和示范应用3个层次开展研究。通过项目研究,预计将提出3种中国河湖保护岸线分类、确定和功能评估理论等新方法,研发建立4 套河湖水域及岸线地物态监管技术与功能评估体系、协调生态环境保护和经济发展的河湖岸线与洲滩保护与利用技术及其评价指标体系等新技术体系,构建1个满足4级“河湖长制”管理需求的河湖岸线动态监管服务平台,在城市江滩、农村滩区、三角洲河网区、高原城市湖泊、重要水源地等5 种代表性河湖库开展示范。成果还将推动河流湖泊动力学、河床演变学、水生态学、水利规划学等学科进步,促进水利与互联网的深度融合,为河湖岸线和内河洲滩资源高效利用与保护及河湖水域岸线科学管理提供有力技术支撑,具有显著的社会经济与生态环境效益。
中文关键词: 河湖岸线  高效利用  保护
Abstract:River and lake shorelines and inland river bottomland are not only the important transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic systems in nature, but also the key area to maintain the ecological health of river and lake systems, as well as the important basis for the economic and social development along the coast. In the dynamic evolution, the contradiction between the protection and utilization of river and lake shorelines and bottomland is apparent, such as the use and disorder of shoreline, the use of deep water instead of shallow water, the encroachment of river channel and normal flood discharge, the natural evolution and river potential control, the connection between rigid bank protection and material, and in particular the cumulative effects of unreasonable development influence flood control, water supply, shipping and ecological environment seriously, and even harder to repair. With the coordinated promotion of ecological priority and green development concept, it is an urgent need and development trend to study the key technology of efficient utilization and protection of river and lake shorelines and inland river bottomland resources. The national key research and development project "research on key technology for efficient utilization and protection of river and lake shorelines and inland river bottomland" is to put forward the theoretical methods for the classification and functional impact assessment of river and lake shorelines in China, to coordinate the protection and utilization mode of river and lake shoreline in the dual demands of ecological environment protection and economic development, develop river water and shoreline dynamic monitoring and function assessment techniques, build a dynamic monitoring pattern and service platform on the river lake, and provide scientific and technological support for the construction of ecological shoreline and safe shoreline. The project will take a multi-disciplinary, multi-means, multi-method integrated technical route, from the basic theory, key technology and demonstration and application of three levels to carry out research. Through the project study, it is expected to propose three new methods of classification, determination and function evaluation theory of river and lake protection shorelines in China, develop and establish 4 sets of new technical systems, such as monitoring technology and functional assessment system for river and lake waters and shorelines, protection and utilization technology and evaluation index system for shorelines and shoals of rivers and lakes that coordinate ecological environmental protection and economic development, construct a river and lake shoreline dynamic supervision service platform meeting the management requirements of level 4 "river and lake length system", and carry out demonstrations in five representative river and lake reservoirs, including urban river Banks, rural beaches, delta river networks, plateau urban lakes and important water sources. Results will also promote dynamics of rivers and lakes, riverbed evolution, water ecology, water conservancy planning such as academic progress, the depth of the water conservancy and internet integration for the coastline of lakes and river bottomland and direct-cleaning coastline of efficient utilization of resources, provide strong technical support for the scientific protection management, and has significant social and economic and ecological environment benefit.
文章编号:201900265     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0407800)
作者简介:谈广鸣(1958-),男,教授,博士.研究方向:河流泥沙与河流管理.E-mail:tangm@vip.163.com
引用文本:
谈广鸣,姚仕明,黎礼刚.河湖岸线和内河洲滩资源高效利用与保护中的关键科学技术问题与预期成果展望[J].工程科学与技术,2019,51(3):1-8.
TAN Guangming,YAO Shiming,LI Ligang.Key Technical Problems and Expected Achievements in Efficient Use and Protection of the Resources of River and Lake Shoreline and Inland River Marshland[J].Advanced Engineering Sciences,2019,51(3):1-8.